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33 terms

AP Biology: Chapter 8

Vocabulary words from the AP Edition of Campbell Biology, Chapter 8.
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metabolism
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
metabolic pathway
series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler molecules
catabolic pathways
metabolic pathways which release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
anabolic pathways
metabolic pathways which consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones
bioenergetics
the study of how energy flows through living organisms
energy
the capacity to cause change
kinetic energy
the energy associated with the relative motion of objects
heat
kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
potential energy
energy that is not kinetic
chemical energy
potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
thermodynamics
the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
first law of thermodynamics
energy can be transferred and transformed, but not created or destroyed
second law of thermodynamics
every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
free energy
the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
spontaneous change
free energy decreases, stability increases, and the released free energy can be harnessed for work
exergonic reaction
reaction which results in a net release of free energy
endergonic reaction
reaction which absorbs free energy from its surroundings
energy coupling
the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
phosphorylated
refers to a molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group
enzyme
a macromolecule acting as a catalyst
catalyst
a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
activation energy
the energy required to contort the reactant molecules so the bonds can break
substrate
the reactant an enzyme acts on
enzyme-substrate complex
formed when the enzyme binds to its substrate
active site
a restricted region of the enzyme molecule that actually binds to the substrate
induced fit
brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction
cofactors
nonprotein helpers, adjuncts, for catalytic activity
coenzyme
a cofactor which is organic
competitive inhibitors
reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites
noncompetitive inhibitors
impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme
allosteric regulation
any case in which a protein's function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site
cooperativity
amplifies the response of enzymes to substrates
feedback inhibition
a metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway