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136 terms

bone tissues

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femur is an example of what bone
a long bone
phalanges is an example of what bone
a short bone
phalanges are
the finger or toe bones
the frontal and scapula is an example of what bone
a flat bone
the frontal bone is
the forehead bone
the scapula bone is the
shoulder bone
an example of the irregular bone is the
vertabre bone
the vertabre bone is the
back bone
the macroscopic structure of a long bone consists what two sections
the diaphysis and epiphyses
the _______ bone is found in the diaphysis section of a long bone
compact
the compact bone is the
hard outside part of the bone
yellow marrow is produced in what section of the long bone
diaphysis
the shaft is structured in the long bone in the.....
diaphysis section
in the diaphyses, the _______ cavity is present
medullary
the periosteum and the endosteum is found in the structure
of the diaphysis of a long bone
the macroscopic structure of the epiphyses is found on the _____ of bones
end
the _______ bone is found in the epiphyses structure of the long bone
spongy
the spongy bone is found in the center of what type of bones
the flat bone
the spongy bone is in the epiphyses but, also lines the ________ _______ of the long bones
diaphysis section
the red bone marrow is found in what long bong section
epiphyses
nametophysis is also know as what
red marrow
what type of cartilage is found in the epiphyses section of a long bone
articular
the _______ plate is found in the ________ section of the long bone
epiphyseal/epiphyseal
the epiphyseal plate is also know as the
growth plate
the chemical make up of the bone matrix consists of ______ and ______ chemicals
organic/inorganic
the inorganic matrix contains what
salts
the matrix inorganic salts consist of
calcium and phosphate
the collagen matrix is found in what chemical make up of the bone matrix
organic
the organic matrix consists of
collagen
the main structure of the compact bone is the...
osteons
another name for osteons is ......
the harversian system
the harversian system contains......
lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, cancaliculi, harversian canal, and the volkmanns canal
what part of the compact bone structure is found in the lacuna
osteocytes
what is known as small canals in the harversian system of the compact bone
cacaliculi
what 2 canals contain blood vessels in the harversian system
the harversian and volkmanns canals
what is known as the "little lake" in the harversian system of the compact bone
lacunae
the concerntric, cylindrical shaped layers of the osteons
lamellae
lamella is found in the osteons or known as the __________ system
harversian
the cancellous bone is also know as the ________ bone
spongy
the structure of the cancellous bone is made up of....
trabeculae
trabeculae is found in the _______ bones of the cancellous bone
flate
the trabeculae lines the _________ cavities in the long bone of the cancellous bone
medullary
the _________ lines the medullary cavities is known as the cavity of _______
trabeculae/diaphysis
the cavity of the diaphysis lines the medullary cavities in the _______ __ ______ _______
trabeculae in flat bone
the trabeculae is located in the ________ structure of a long bone and is in the ________ of flat bones
epiphyses/center
the trabeculae tends to form along lines caused from _______
stress
3 major types of bone cells are...
osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
osteocytes are known as bone _______ cells
structure
what bone cell is found in the compact bone in lacuna of osteons
osteocytes
osteocytes cause structure in the _____
bone
the mature bone cells are known as the _______ _____ _____
osteocytes bone cells
osteoblasts are know as the bone ________ cells
forming
the 2 bone cells that contain marrow and periosteam
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
the cells that form the bone
osteoblasts
osteoclast are known as the bone ___________ cells
reabsorbing
what bone cell is known as the bone reabsorbing cells
osteoclasts
what are the functions of the skeletal system
support, protection, movement, mineral storage, and hematipiesis
what is hematopies
the process of forming red blood cells
what is the scientific name for the formation of red blood cells
hematopieses
hematipieses forms what color blood cells
red
what 2 hormones affect the blood calcium levels and the activity of the osteoblasts and osteoclasts
PTH and calcitonin
what does PTH stand for
parathyroid hormone
when the blood calcium level is low in PTH the osteoclast activity is _________
increased
PTH causes the increase of ______ ________ when the blood level of calcium is too low
osteoclast activity
when the bone is broken down in the PTH, it releases ______ into the blood
calcium
what hormone increases the absorption in the intestines
PTH
what hormone stimulates the production of vitamin D
parathyroid
the parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of ________ __
vitamin D
the increase of absorption in the intestines leads to the ________ in the absorption of calcium in the PTH
increase
in PTH, when calcium level is high in the blood, the osteoclasts are ________
decreased
another name for the hormone calcitonin is __________
miacalcin
what hormone is made by the thyroid gland
calcitonin
the hormone calcitonin is made from the ________ gland
thyroid
when blood calcium levels are high in the calcitonin hormone _______ is increased and _______ activity is decreased
osteoblast/osteoclast
in the calcitonin hormone what activity is decreased
the osteoclast activity
what _______ ________ increases bone density
calcitonin hormone
the calcitonin hormone is used to treat what
postmenopausal osteoprosis
what does the hormone do to treat postmenopausal osteoprosis
the hormone causes the bone to thicken, increasing osteoblasts (bone growth)
the hormone ______ treats postmenopausal osteoprosis by increasing the ________
calcitonin/osteoblast
the structure of the long bone consists of ....
endochondral ossification, primary ossification center, secondary ossification cencert, and the epiphyseal plate
what is formed in the endochondral ossicication center of the long bone
cartilage
the primary ossification center is the entrance for the _______ _______
blood vessels
the entrance of the blood vessels in the primary ossification center is where the _______ _______ is developed
marrow cavity
the epiphyseal plate of the long bone structure is known as the ______ plate of the bone
growth
the epiphyseal plate consists of the......
cartilage, proliferation, hypertrophy, and the calicification
the first stage of the epiphyseal plate is where the _____ _____
cartilage forms
in the proliferation on the epiphyseal plate is when ______ occurs
mitosis
in the hypertrophy the epiphyseal plate _____
dies
in what part of the epiphyseal plate does the cartilage get replaces with bone
the calicification
what are the 3 stages of bone healing
hematoma, callus formation, and bone remodeling
the hematoma is the ________ stage of bone healing
first
in hematoma red blood cells form, creating ___ _____ ______
red bone marrow
the callus formation of bone healing is when ________ removes cells, while the _______ form bones
osteoclasts/chemicals
in what stage of bone healing does the hematoma go away
callus formation
what stage formates new osteons around the harversian blood vessels
bone remodeling
the bone is usually stronger than before after
the bone heals
in bone healing the osteoblast form
callus's
in bone healing the osteoclasts do the
remodeling
what are the 3 types of cartilage found in the skeletal system
hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
what cartilage is "glass like"
hyaline
the hyaline cartilage is found on the ends of the ______
trachea
the ______ _______ provides free movement because of the smooth surface it creates at the end of bone
hyaline cartilage
in the hyaline cartilage, the ____________ are medium sized and appear in rows
chondrocytes
what cartilage is known as being flexible
the elastic cartilage
where is the elastic cartilage found
in the outer ear flap or between the vertabre
in the ________ cartilage, the tissue bends, yet can remain its shape
elastic
in the elastic cartilage, there are large _______ __ __________
lacuna with chondrocytes
in the matrix of the elastic cartilage contains ______ ______ ______ ______
dark stained elastin fibers
what cartilage is formed from fibers
fibrocartilage
fibrocartilage is found in the _________________ ______
intervertebal disks
the fibrocartilage ______ ______ with some give
absorbs shocks
in the matrix of the fibrocartilage contains ________ ________ and stain red
collagen fibers
fibrocartilage only has a very ____ ____ _____ amount of lacuna with chondrocytes
few and small
what vitamin and mineral combination is needed to maintain bones
calcium and vitamin d
what occurs in osteoprosis
the bone becomes thing
when the bone becomes thin, it puts the bone at rick for ________
fractures
in osteprosis the vertabre ________
shrinks
when the vertabre shrinks, it causes a ______ __ _____
decrease in height
what disease is most frequent in post menopausal women and can lead to hip fractures
osteprosis
what is NOT a primary function of the skeletal system
hormone production
the periosteum can be found covering....
the out side of bones
a fracture in the shaft (middle) of the bone would be a break in ____ _____ ____
the diaphysis part
when talking about the "shaft" of the bone, it is talking about the _________ ___ ___ ______
middle of the bone
the basic unit of the compact bone is called the
osteon (harversian system)
the osteocytes in a compact bone are found in the .......
lacuna in the osteon
the major purpose of the epiphyseal plate ......
to help the bone grow
the primary ossification center of a long bone is located ......
at the midpoint of the diaphysis
in bone growth, the medullary cavity is formed because of the activity of _________
the oesteoclasts
the type of cartilage that is found on the articular surfaces of bone is.....
the hyaline cartilage
the first step of healing after a fracture occurs is the.....
formation of a fracture hematoma
the matrix of a compact bone contains ______ and _______ ___
collagen/mineral salt
the process of hematopoiesis occurs where in the bone.......
in the red bone marrow
the organic matter found in the matrix of bones .....
includes collagen
the first stages (stages 1-3) of endochondral ossification occur when
in the fetus
when a fracture occurs at the "growth plate" it is called a.......
epiphyseal fracture
the function of these bone cells is forming bone
the osteoblasts bone cells