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AP Psychology Unit 14 - Social Psychology
Ryen Clark Period 5 Vocabulary from Unit 14 - Social Psychology from Myers' Psychology for AP
Terms in this set (47)
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition. (Girl at the Mall fighting with her mother example)
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. (someone trips you and you think its because they hate you but they were just stretching)
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
central route persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. (you choose political leader because of the topics he believes in)
peripheral route persuasion
attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. (you choose a political leader because of how cute he is)
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. (start small and build)
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting discomfort by changing our attitudes.
adjusting one's BEHAVIOR or thinking to coincide with a group standard. (drinking at a party because everyone else is)
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. (you ride faster in a race because people are watching)
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. (group work in salems class)
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (stanford prison experiment, stripping prisoners of everything)
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. They prescribe "proper" behavior.
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. It generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
the action of negative behavior towards people
"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity. (squad)
"Them"—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
the tendency to favor our own group. (squad over everything)
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. (seeing someone everyday on the way to work is more likely to like them rather than a stranger you've never seen before)
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. (ty)
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. (dalton)
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
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