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learning that has persisted over time, info that has been stored and can be retrieved

Flashbulb Memory

a clear memory of an emotional event


processing of info into the memory system


retention of encoded info over time


process of getting info out of memory storage

Long-Term Memory

relatively permanent storehouse of the memory system; knowledge, skills, experiences

Short-Term Memory

activated memory that hold a few items briefly

Sensory Memory

immediate, brief recording of sensory info in the memory system


conscious repetition of info

Spacing Effect

tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention

Serial Position Effect

our tendency to recall best the first and last items on a list


mental pictures


memory aids, use vivid imagery and organizational devices


organizing items into familiar, manageable units; occurs automatically often

iconic memory

sensory or visual memory; photographic or picture-image memory lasting under a second

echoic memory

sensory or auditory memory; lasting 3 or 4 seconds


loss of memory

proactive interference

disruptive effect of prior learning on trying to remember new info

retroactive interference

disruptive effect of new learning on trying to remember old info

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