materialist, 1st philosopher to bring philosophy from Ionia to Athens.
-"everything has a share of everything"
-matter = indestructible
-change = recombination
-Nous (mind) = ordering force
-sharp distinction between soul and body
2nd master of Milesean school.
- nature ruled by laws
-physics: apeiron(the indefinite) = the source of all things
-evolution and natural selection
air = primary substance of which all other things are made. (material monism, tendency to identify one specific underlying reality made up of a material thing).
-Condensation:air condenses & becomes visible, and as the condensed air cools he supposed that it went on to form earth.
-rarefaction: water evaporates into air which ignites and produces flame when further rarefied.
Socrates says Anytus joined the prosecution because he was "vexed on behalf of the craftsmen and politicians"
according to Anaximander: in physics, "The indefinite", the source of all things, led to new level of conceptual abstraction
Argument from Affinity
Since the soul exists and is invisible: has affinity with ideas and therefore is-> immortal, unchanging, and indissoluble. A Soul not addicted to material things -> commune with gods. So constantly purify soul and follow reason only. No need to fear death.
Argument from opposites
everything comes to be from its opposite (Ex.living things come from dead things->implication of perpetual circle of life and death in the world) the souls of the dead must exist somewhere In a place where they wait to be reborn.
pupil of Plato, father worked for Phillip of Macedons son Amyntas. 347, goes to Assos invited by Hermias (tyrant) joins colony of philosophers. Married H's niece Pythias.Tutor to Alex the great, created Lyceum (school) 1st library/museum of natural history. friendship w/antipater. brought up on charges of impiety (anti-macedonian political ploy), left athens, died
pythagorean, objects to Socrate's argument. "What you have proved so far is that the soul is long lived, long lived is not the same as immortal. Have to prove the soul has eternal indestructibility, not pre-existence required (might perish at death)"
disciple of Socrates, comes to him in his cell wants him to escape. Reasons: 1) endangering good reputation of friends by not escaping. 2) enjoy life in a good place. 3)joining his enemies part by not trying to save his own life 4)avoiding obligations to his children 5)cowardice
ppls. court. all male citizens >30 = eligible. volunteer, chosen by lot. paid, many old/poor become jurors. voting = secret (pebbles, disks), voted on penalty also, no binding precedent, no appeals, get punishment same day
logical standards of clarity and necessity to be the criteria of truth. opposite of materialists(physicalists);
-by thought alone (not senses) that we can arrive at the knowledge of being; there can be no creation
- 4 elements
- matter eternal, uncreated, indestructible
-reconciliation of opposites
-attraction and repulsion
earliest of Plato's dialogues, Socrates on way to court, meets E who is prosecuting father for murder (negligent homicide of slave who had killed other slave). S says E must be expert in religion. Virtue dialogue: What is piety/holiness
replacement for ostracism. it provided a weapon with which rival Athenian politicians could damage or eliminate each other
- change = truth
-conflict of opposites
time allocation device. water clock, measures time. each person (prosecutor/defendant) get same amount of time to talk.
-atomic theory of the cosmos: atoms, infinite number, different sizes & shapes, invisible
-natural law and chance
religio-mythical explanation abandoned, cosmology, sense perceptions, change, principle of unity of matter (the only thing that exists is matter); philosophy and science should operate according to the physical world, and that's all that exists
mean/ golden mean
Aristotle, ethical virtue. Can always have too little or too much of something. Ex. how one should behave in battle (courage can differ for each individual)
one of three prosecutors of Socrates, knows nothing about what is best for the young; vexed on behalf of the poets
poem -> on nature ; founded eleatic school
-Opinion: ones senses/perception lead to illusive and false conceptions/opinions
-TRUTH: truth in Being, not Becoming; Being = abstract thought, perceived by Reason (change impossible)
Socrates argues that the soul is immortal:
1.) [a] argument from analogy of opposites [b] argument from recollection. 2.) Argument from Affinity. refutes claims of the pythagoreans. 3.) theory of ideas, myth of the afterlife [spherical universe, protreptic -> to convince ppl. to follow the way of the philosopher]
physis v. nomos
distinction btwn nature (physis) and custom or convention (nomos)
1. man= natural creature subject to certain laws of nature which he cannot help but obey
2. man lives in a society, the rules and structure of which have no roots in nature and are based only on custom
(428-348), wealthy, aristocratic family, active in political life, disciple of Socrates, disillusioned with democracy and oligarchy, founded Academy in 388, Sicilian experiments, died in Athens
Sophist, "Man is the measure of all things..." :
controversial, contrasting to other philosophical doctrines that claimed the universe was based on something objective, outside the human influence.
-number abstractions and mysticism; set up his own religious sect
-distrust of senses and concrete
-truthharmony, order, proper proportion through mathematics
-body inferior to soul: ascetic purity of body and control through reason
- reincarnation and transmigration of souls
Pythagorean, objects to Socrates argument for argument from affinity, Attunement: Can tune the Lyre, and it may with time go out of tune, or could get broken and at that point the attunement perishes along with the lyre. If soul a harmony of parts of body, sould may perish before the body
died at 70, (son of Sonphranistis and phaenarete), sculptor, military service (physical endurance, crazy/mystic). Taught (not for $), father of ethics,
-paid teachers: thinking, speaking, practical instruction; "how to make the weaker argument the stronger";
-man as individual and social being
-physis v. nomos
-knowledge a means to control of life
formal logic. major premises, minor premises, conclusion (absolutely must follow, must be true). Determine truth or falsity in an argument.
Sparta wins peloponnesian war, interfere in states. Athens -> 30 oligarchs chosen by Sparta, reformed govt., got rid of Democrats, Athenians rebel, Sparta establishes governor (harmost), Democrats rebel again Sparta restores democracy and The 30 are executed
Theory of Ideas
came out of the academy, keystone of Plato's philosophy, the things we see around us are just copies of a "bluprint"/ idea that exists on some other plane
Theory of recollection (Phaedo)
Learning is really recollecting what we already know, what we recollect now we must have learned before (Ex. child knows a stick is longer but knows nothing about measurements) Socrates uses this to argue the immortality of the soul->
"If the soul existed before birth and if, when it proceeds toward the life and is born, it must be born from the dead, then it must also exist after death"
-oneness; the One = God
-antipolytheistic and anti-anthropomorphic (used poetry criticized and satirized many ideas), wrote for future generations
Philosophy of Socrates
- happiness = perfection of soul= goal of life
- virtue not enforced by convention or conduct (happiness its own reward), not derived from sensory perception, self directed morality based on reason
- Virtue = knowledge (wrongs-> unintentional product of ignorance);
Socrates V. Sophists
no bribes, virtue = objective standards of virtuous conduct. (deduction not induction)
friends w/Tyrants in Sicily, find perfect means of Govt, = pet project, best of all rulers = philosopher king, laboratory for this idea, failures: young men gave into dark side when faced with absolute power
25, argumentative conversation, dramatic (almost like a play), habit of illustrating philosophical stuff by inventing/inserting his own mythology (Ex. Myth of Er)
academic philosophy. theory of ideas
-body=vessel for holding soul, only be concerned about soul & making it better->reason.
-trying to form ideal state (individual subordinate to state), govt = intellectual elite, system of compulsory education, emancipation of women, abolition of private property, edu. of young controlled by censorship,
Def. 1: holiness is what i am doing now. Objeciton: need definition.
- Def 2: holiness is what is agreeable to the gods
- elenchus 2: diff gods, diff ideas of agreeable
- Def 3: holiness is what all gods approve of
-E 3: is is approved b/c its holy or visa versa?
(interlude->Socrates like Daedalus. Socrates hint: holiness a part of justice)
- Def 4: holiness is part of justice concerned w/looking after gods
- E 4: need def of "looking after" ->nope back to def 2-3 (conclusion: E leaves, 2 complicated & too much time)
-intro generally long, brings forward expert (possessor of virtue at issue), excuse for examining explanation of virtue, interlocutor gives examples illustrating virtue in self, explanation of interlocutor doesnt cover all instances
- tells you what you dont know, makes you as questions to yourself
Socrates' defense, Refutation of popular opinions of Socrates, testing the meaning of Apollo's oracle.
- refutation of formal charges
- digression on his life
-Peroration (doesnt make appeal to pity)
-Penalty proposal (Socrates says reward me, other option = death); Death penalty chosen
- post -sentence address (addresses those who condemned and those who acquitted)
Apology: Refutation->corruption of the youth
examination of Meletus->young ppl should be exposed to best possible influence (those who know the laws of Athens), analogy of horse trainers [straw man] few people can train young correctly, those who attempt to but cant harm them. Socrates says Meletus says few= those who cant.
Apology: Refutation-> Q of intentional harm
good community V. bad community. bad ppl. harm citizens, good ppl. = good effect. no one prefers to be harmed, if he harmed young he would harm himself. (either i am a bad influence or i have done something unintentionally)
Apology: Refutation ->Atheism
no one believes in supernatural matters and not in supernatural beings
- Daimones = supernatural beings, divine spirits like a guardian angel
Digression on Socrates' Life
- once one takes a stand, one must face the dangers, death before dishonor (death not to be feared). Obey superior->superior = god; he will never stop philosophizing, simile: gadfy to racehorse, socrates personal sacrifices for city,
Socrates response to Crito
1)only takes advice from experts, not friends, not from opinion of many 2)importance of soul over body [soul ruined by unjust actions] 3) is it just to escape? always be just, just to fulfill agreements 4)stigma of breaking law = mockery of views 5) children will not benefit 6)consequences in afterlife
Crito: Laws of Athens
Socrates creates these abstract laws in lieu of an elenchus ,has to be able to argue with something not personal (law must be supreme). Justice requires staying and facing penalty. Socrates has agreed to stay in Athens and obey laws
Crito: things to note
reltiong between individual and state here different from other references (sacrifice of individuals moral independence for conventional law). Problems with this dialogue, questions of authorship
chief founder of comparative & systematic zoology. founder of scientific botany, prolific writer: esoteric/acroastic notes: his lecture notes, shorthand designed for students
opposed theory of ideas: believed universe constantly moving and changing, ideas couldn't explain variety or motion
-observation through senses (reason = sense), didn't trust mathematics (common sense, practical)
- deduction rather than induction
-Nous (mind) distinguishes man from all other creatures (hierarchy, diff types of soul)
- happiness = virtue (doing what a creature does best)
-man a political/social animal
Aristotle compared to Plato
- stronger sense of reality
- less severe criticism
more inclined to observe then to guide
Aristotle and government
elitist. right/good constitutions = monarchy, aristocray, polity. wrong/bad constitutions = democracy oligarchy, tyranny
- wants education under complete control of state