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59 terms

Chapter 6 World History

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Muhammad
born in Mecca, orphaned at 5, married Khadija
Muhammad
worried due to disparities between rich and poor so began mediating
Yathrib
Islam first flourished here; the people accepter Muhammad as leader and king
Yathrib
Muhammad established laws, settled disputes here in turn for a place to stay for him and his followers
Medina
another name for Yathrib
hijrah
the event that marks year one on Islamic calendar when Muhammad and his followers fled
622 CE
year one on the Islamic calendar
Shar´ia
set of law codes to regulate daily life; developed after Muhammad's death; based upon interpretation
Quran
Islam's holy book with Muhammad's revelation from Allah; contains laws
Belief
PILLAR only one god Allah
Prayer
PILLAR 5 times a day toward Mecca
Charity
PILLAR give to the poor; giving of alms
Fasting
PILLAR during Ramadan refrain from food and drink from dawn till dusk
Pilgrimage
PILLAR must go to Mecca once in a lifetime
rules for Muslims
forbidden to eat pork, drink alcohol, engage in immoral behavior, marriage central to family
Allah
who created all and offers salvation and afterlife?
Muhammad
who was the prophet but not divine?
succession
what was unsettled which led to the Islamic split or schism?
Umayyad
General Mu´Awiyah became Caliph of this dynasty; caliph was heredity
Umayyad
what dynasty converted Berbers and Muslims and attacked Constantinople but Byzantine defeated them?
Damascus
what was the capital of Umayyad?
Umayyad
what dynasty excluded and treated non-Arabs poorly?
Abbasids
the Umayyads were defeated and replaced by who?
Baghdad
what was the capital of Abbasid?
Abbasid
the rulers of this dynasty claimed to be descendants of Muhammad's uncle
Abbasid
made Islam open to all; heterogeneous culture
Southwest Asia
the crusades where led to mistrust between Christians and Muslims?
Saladin
Muslim _______ took Jerusalem in the 3rd Crusade
Saladin
compromised with Richard the Lion-Hearted and granted Christian's access to Holy Places
vizier
Council with prime minister advised Caliph in the Abbasid Dynasty. What was the prime minister called?
Jihad
Bakr claimed "struggle in the way of God"
Jihad
what spread Islamic Empire to encompass Egypt, Syria, and the Persian Empire?
South, East Africa, India, China, Egypt, Iraq
areas of the world with which Arabs traded
caravan routes
ship and camel caravans traveled Morocco in west to countries beyond Caspian Sea
Equality
what did the Quran indicate for treatment of women?
Sharia
what law dictated different roles for men and women?
Burqa
what was the full dress for women?
Arab
what was the burqa custom of?
Cordoba
in Islamic Spain, biggest city behind Constantinople
Christianity and Islam
accuse Judaism of stubbornly refusing to accept later revelations that modify and update its original truths
Judaism and Islam
accuse Christians of a kind of idolatry in claiming that God begat a son who was actually a form of God and who walked the earth in human form
Judaism and Christianity
argue that God did not give a special, final revelation to Muhammad
government
competition over what led to opposition in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism?
sheikh
ruler of each tribe; chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders
Quran
the holy book of the religion Islam; contains ethical guidelines and laws by which the followers of Allah are to live
Islam
"preach through submission to the will of Allah;" has only one God, Allah and Muhammad is God's prophet
Hijrah
the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah occurring in 622
Hajj
all Muslims are encouraged to make a pilgrimage to Makkah if possible
shari'ah
the code that provides believed with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives; based on scholars' interpretations of the Quran and the example set by Muhammad in his life
caliph
successor to Muhammad
jihad
fair, defensive war permitted by the Quran
Shiite
accept only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam
Sunni
accept the Umayyads as rulers
vizier
a council headed by a prime minister who advised the caliph
sultan
the Turkish leader who captured Baghdad and took command of the empire; "holder of power"
mosque
Muslim houses of worship
dowry
a gift of money or property
Abbasids
made Baghdad, the Abbasid capital known as the City of Peace, the greatest city in the empire and one of the greatest cities in the world while they had power
Fatimids
after their rise in Egypt, the focus of trade shifted to Cairo