22 terms

Chemical Classes of Hormones

Dr. Williams Exam 4 part 2
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Terms in this set (...)

What are the main classes of Hormones?
-Water Soluble [Hydrophilic]
-Lipid Soluble [Hydrophobic]
What are the three types of Hydrophilic hormones?
-Amines or Amino Acid Derivatives
-Peptide
-Eicosanoid (in between hydrophilic and hydrophobic)
What are the two types of Hydrophobic hormones?
-Steroid (majority)
-Thyroid
What are characteristics of Amines or Amino Acid Derivatives?
-Synthesized by decarboxylating (CO2) from ONLY 1 amino Acid
-Stored in vesicles
-STIMULUS causes release
(What are the three types of Hydrophilic hormones?)
What are characteristics of Peptide Hormones?
-Polymers of amino acids (3 to 300+ amino acids)
-Stored in vesicles
-STIMULUS causes release
(What are the three types of Hydrophilic hormones?)
What are characteristics of Eicosanoid Hormones?
-Derived from Arachidonic Acid
-Work over short distances
-Inactivate quickly
-NOT stored
-Stimulus causes secretion and synthesis
-ARE NOT Amino Acid derivatives
(What are the three types of Hydrophilic hormones?)
What is an example of an Amine or Amino Acid Derivative Hormone?
-Histamine
What are examples of Peptide Hormone?
-Oxytocin
-Insulin
What is an example of Eicosanoid Hormone?
-Prosoglandins
What are characteristics of Steroid Hormones?
-Derived from CHOLESTEROL
-NOT stored
-Stimulus causes secretion and synthesis
(What are the two types of Hydrophobic Hormones?)
What are characteristics of Thyroid Hormones?
-Synthesized by attaching Iodine to Tyrosine
-NOT stored
-Stimulus causes secretion and synthesis
(What are the two types of Hydrophobic Hormones?)
What is an example of Steroid Hormone?
-Testosterone
What is an example of Thyroid Hormones?
-T3
-T4
How are Hormones secreted?
-Secreted from specialized neuronal cells (neuroendocrine cells)
What occurs in Neuroendocrine cells?
-Conversion of electrochemical signal to hormonal signal
-Stimulation by neurotransmitter (neuroendocrine) releases hormone into the blood stream
The Steroid Hormones in our body (estrogen, progesterone..) are all derived from?
-Cholesterol
Hormones are effective in what relative concentrations?
-Nanomolar to picomolar (10^-9 to 10^-12)
What is the Physiological concentration?
-the amount of hormone necessary to elicit a "normal" response
What is the Pharmacological concentration?
-the amount of hormone found when taken as a drug
-may produce exaggeration of physiological effects (side effects) or non characteristic effects
What is the Pathological concentration?
-an abnormally high or low concentration of hormone produced by an endocrine gland
-produces non-characteristic effects
Example: (High Growth Hormone = 7 feet tall)
How do Hydrophilic Hormones transport or circulate?
-circulate free in blood plasma
How do Hydrophobic Hormones transport of circulate?
-circulate bound to transport protein
-make lipid soluble proteins water soluble
-retards degradation
-provide temporary storage place