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Endo - Lecture 8
Terms in this set (49)
What are the 2 types of cells found in the pancreas?
Acini and Islets of Langerhan
Which of the cells are found as a majority in the pancreas?
Which of the types of cells are exocrine?
Acini cells secrete digestive juices where?
Into small intestine
Islets of Langerhans are endocrine cells that make up what percentage of pancreas cells?
What is the diameter of Islets of Langerhans cells?
Where are islets of Langerhans found?
Around small capillaries
What are the 3 major types of Langerhands, and 2 minor Langerhans?
What hormones are associated with Alpha, Beta and Delta Islet cells?
Alpha - Glucagon
Beta - Amylin and insulin
Delta - Somatostatin
Where is insulin synthesized in?
Beta Islet cells
Describe the synthesis of insulin
RNA binds with ER to form precursor protein called insulin preprohormone --> preprohormone cleaves in ER to form proinsulin --> Proinsulin cleaves in Golgi Apparatus to form insulin --> Insulin is then stored into secretory granules for use --> For use it is secreted into blood
Insulinase is the enzyme that clears insulin mainly in which organ in the body?
What is the half life of insulin?
What is the total clearance of insulin?
Insulin is initially not permeable to glucose, so what does it do?
It makes the membrane permeable to glucose in order to reduce glucose in the blood
Glucose uptake occurs based on which effect?
Mass Action Effect
Describe the "mass action effect"
The more glucose in the blood the more it will be taken up, the less the glucose in the blood the less it will be taken up
Between what range should blood glucose be maintained?
Hypoglycemia and even coma occurs if the blood glucose drops below what level?
Because glucose cannot cross the cell membrane normally, what does insulin promote?
All systems in the body use glut4 for to help glucose cross the cell membrane except which structure in the body? Why?
The brain; because it has insulin-insensitive glucose transporters, it does not need insulin to transport glucose
What can result because of excess insulin?
Insulin shock, coma / hyperinsulemia
In 1869 who discovered insulin in Berlin?
In 1889 who were the 2 scientists that removed the pancreas of a dog and saw that the urine became sweet?
Oscar Minkowski and Joseph Van Mering
In 1921 what did Frederick Banting, Charles Best, JJ Macleod and James Collip do?
Purified the pancreas and found insulin
Who sold insulin as a medecinal use?
Who won the Nobel Physio/Med prize in 1923?
Banting and Macleod
Who did Banting and Macleod share their prize with?
Banting with Best Macleod with Collip
Who won the nobel prize in chemistry for the structure of insulin?
Who won the Nobel Chemistry prize for the development of crystallography?
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
Who won the Nobel prize in Medecine for the development of RIA for insulin in 1977?
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
After a meal why do glyocogen stores increase in the liver?
Because of the increased uptake up glucose
Which liver enzymes are activated after a meal?
Glucokinase, glycogen synthase
What enzymes are deactivated after a meal?
Glucose phosphotase, glycogen phosphorylase
What does glucokinase do?
What does glycogen synthase do?
What does glucose phophotase do?
Prevent glucose escape
What does glycogen phosphorylase do?
Reduces glycogen breakdown
Between meals what enzymes are activated?
At rest what is muscle metabolism dependent on as its fuel?
During exercise, muscle metabolism requires a lot of glucose, but this glucose uptake is independent of ___. Rather the uptake is enhanced by ____ and ______.
Glut4; increased blood flow, and muscle contraction
By how many folds can insulin increase the uptake of glucose?
What percentage of glucose can the liver hold?
When glycogen stores are full, what is glucose converted into?
Describe the conversion of glucose into fatty acids
Glucose splits into pyruvate
Pyruvate --> Acetyl Co A
Acetyl Co A --> Malonyl Co A
--> Fatty acids and tryglycerides
What does insulin inhibit?
Why is HSL inhibited?
To block the break down of fat from adipose tissue
Because HSL is inhibited, what can we conclude about insulin in regards to fats?
Insulin promotes the storage of fats in adipose tissue
Insulin also promotes the uptake of ____ to convert it into fatty acids
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