21 terms

AP Bio (Ch 10)

Frederick Griffith
This person made an experiment that involved injecting mice with smooth S cells, rough R cells, heat-killed S cells, and heat-killed S cells with living R cells.
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
Determined that genetic DNA, not protein, was the genetic material using experiments about bacteriophages
Edwin Chargaff
discovered that identical quantities of A and T, C and G were present in DNA
Rosalind Franklin
Woman who generated x-ray images of DNA, she povided Watson and Crick with key data about DNA
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
single-ring nitrogenous base, found in DNA and RNA; either cytosine, thymine, or uracil
Semi-conservative Replication
in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new
Proved that DNA replicates in a semiconservative fashion, confirming Watson and Crick's hypothesis. Cultured bacteria in a medium containing heavy nitrogen (15N) and then a medium containing light nitrogen (14N); after extracting the DNA, they demonstrated that the replicated DNA consisted of one heavy strand and one light strand
DNA Replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
DNA Polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment; also called DNA ligase. This enzyme is usedd during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.
replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
replication bubble
a region of DNA, in front of the replication fork, where helicase has unwound the double helix
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
single-strand binding proteins
Proteins that bind to and stabilize the signle strands of DNA exposed when helicase unwinds the double helix in preparation for replication.
Okazaki Fragments
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.