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Clinical use and dosage form terms

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fusion
the process of liquefying a substance by the application of heat.
Vaporization
the process of transforming solids or liquids into the gaseous state
evaporation
the process of transforming solids or liquids into the daseous state with or without the aid of an outside stimulus.
distillation
the process of converting a liquid to a vapor and condensing the vapor back into a liquid
desiccation
the process of removing water from substances at low or moderate temperatures
geometric dilution
techniques used to prepare potent drugs by intermittently mixing them with a suitable diluents in a definite proportion by weight
trituration
the process of reducing the particle size of a substance by placing it in a mortar and applying pressure in a rotary motion with a pestle
levigation
the process of reducing the particle size of solids by first forming a paste with a liquid then rubbing the paste with a spatula on an ointment slab.
pulverization by intervention
the process of reducing ta substance to a powder by dissolving it in a small amount of volatile solvent and triturating until dry.
effervescent
a substance that releases carbon dioxide when dissolved in water
deliquescent
a substance that absorbs moisture from the air becoming liquefied
hygroscopic
a substance that absorbs moisture from the air becoming moist and damp without liquefying
eutectic
certain drugs that are solids at room temperature form liquids when mixed together
acute
disease having sudden onset and short course
anatomy
the study of the structures of the body and the relation of its parts
biology
the study of living things both plant and animal
chronic
disease having long duration and slow progress
pathology
the study of abnormal body conditions, causes, processes and effects on the functions of the parts involved
physiology
the study of the function of living things
cavity
hollow place or space in a structure
cranial
pertaining to the head or skull
distal
the part that is farthest from the point of attachment
external
refers to the outside or outer part of a structure
internal
refers to the inside or inner part of a structure
parietal
pertains to the wall of a structure
peripheral
near the surface of the body or its parts
proximal
the part that is nearest the point of attachment
visceral
the structures inside the body.
analgesic
agent that relieves pain
anthelmintic
agent that destroys intestinal worms
antibacterial
agent that destroys or inhibits bacteria growth
antiflatulent
agent that relieves excess intestinal gas
antihyperlipidemic
agent that lowes cholesterol levels
antihypertensive
agent that lowers blood pressure
antipruritic
agent that relieves itching
antipyritic
agent that lowers an elevated body temp
antiseptic
dilute solution applied to living tissue to destrroy or prevetn the growth of microorganisms
antispasmodic
agent that relieves or prevents spasms
antitussive
agent that relieves coughing
astringent
agent that shrinks or constricts body tissue to stop secretions or control bleeding
capsule
a medicated solid dosage form in which drugs and additives are enclosed in a hard or soft gelatin case
carminative
agent that relieves intestinal gad
cathartic
agent that promotes evacuation of the bowels
caustic
agent that causes destruction of tissues at the site of application
counter-irritant
agent that causes irritation or mild inflammation of skin to relieve pain or irritation of a different origin
cream
semi solid emulsion of the water/oil type for external use
demulcent
soothes and relieves irritation or the mucous membranes
diuretic
agent that increases production of urine
disinfectant
concentrated solution that is applied to inanimate objects to inhibit growth of microorganisms
douche
aqueous solution instilled into a body cavity for cleansing and disinfectant actions
emollient
a fatty or oily substance that softens or soothes irritated skin or mucous membranes
emulsion
mixture of two unblendable liquids
enema
a solution placed into the rectum to elicit a local or systemic action
expectorant
agent that removes mucous from the upper respiratory tract
fungicide
an agent that kills fungus
gargle
aqueous solution used to treat a disease of the mouth or throat
gel
semi solid of thick viscous liquid consisting of dispersed particles
germicide
agent that kills bacteria or microorganisms
humectant
agent that keeps substances moist
keratolytic
agent that separated or loosens the horny layer of skin
mouthwash
an aqueous solution used for its cleansing and deodorant action in the oral cavity
parasiticide
agent that kills organisms that grow only on living organisms
paste
concentrates of absorptive powders usually dispersed in petrolatum or hydrophilic petrolatum
pharmaceutical necessity
a substance of little therapeutic value but useful in compounding preparations. binder or filler
placebo
preparation containing no therapeutic active ingredient and is given for its psychological effect
preservative
a substance added to medications to preserve them from bacterial action.
protectant
agent used to cover and protect the skin from harmful or annoying stimuli
rubefacient
agent that causes mild inflammation or reddening of the skin
scabicide
agent that kills mites
tablet
a solid medicated dosage form made by compression or molding
formulary
continually updated list of medications and devices that may be provided by a facility, individualized list of preferred products that represent the safest, most efficacious and most cost effective therapies
formulary system
methods and processes by which a healthcare orginazation evaluated and selects the most medically appropriate and cost effective meds and therapies for different diseases conditions and patients
generic medication
pharmaceutical equivalent to a branded medication that had the identical strength, dosage form, and concentration of active ingredient
brand
under patent or has a trademarked name that appears on the package label
generic substitution
providing a generic medication in place of the brand medication that was written by provider. chemically identical in terms of concentration dosage form and method of administration of active ingredient
medication
any vitamins, drug products, vaccines, or diagnostic and contrast agents used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of diseases and other abnormal conditions
medication-use evaluation
quality improvement activity that focuses on evaluating and improving medication use processed
P and T committee
an advisory committee of physician, nurses, pharmacists, and other health professionals whose responsibility is to develop manage update and administer a formulary system
therapeutic alternatives
drug products with different chemical structures from other drug products of the same pharmacologic or therapeutic class
therapeutic interchange
authorized interchange of therapeutic alternatives in accordance with the established and approved written guidelines or protocols with in a formulary system
therapeutic substitution
substituting a therapeutic alternative for the prescribed drug product. illegal for a pharmacist to dispense without authorization from the prescriber
open formulary
unlimited access to any medication of their choice
closed formulary
imposes restrictions on the medications the provider may prescribe
selective formulary
open formulary concept but can segregate medications based upon a provider's specialty
DEA number
two letters followed by 7 numbers to prescirbe controlled substance medication. first letter is A or B for physicians, or M for mid-level practitioners
labeling a prescription
patient name, pharmacy name and address, prescriber name, drug name and strength, quantity dispensed, date filled, number of refills, directions for use
National provider identifier (NPI)
to uniquely identify a healthcare provider in standard transactions.
auxiliary labels
used to provide pertinent warnings about the medication. includes route of administration, how to use or store, common side effects, or potential drug interactions
the signa
abbreviation for perscrition
appropriate action verb must be used when interpreting and correct dosage form and route.