Civics EOC "Checklist" Questions
Terms in this set (230)
How is a resident alien different from an immigrant?
An alien is any person not a citizen or national of a country whereas an immigrant is a person who comes to a country to live permanently.
What is the difference between law of blood & law of soil?
Law of Blood: a person is a US citizen because they their parents are US citizens.
Law of Soil: a person is a US citizen because they were born in the US.
What is the Selective Service System?
The Selective Service System is an independent agency of the United States government that maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription.
How does the 14th amendment define a U.S. citizen?
defines citizenship, grants citizenship to former slaves, and defines voters as males at least 21 years of age
What is the difference between an obligation/duty & a responsibility?
Obligations are required of citizens. Duties/Responsibilities are things good citizens should do.
What are the five obligations/duties of a US citizen?
1. Pay Taxes
2. Obey the Law
3. Go to School
4. Defend the Nation
5. Attend Jury Duty
What are the two main responsibilities of a US citizen?
1. Be an Informed Citizen and Vote
2. Participate in Government
Why is it important to be an active participant in society and government?
Because the government is their to serve the people, and people should have the opportunity to get involved in government.
What is the process of becoming a US citizen called?
1. Be 18 Years Old
2. Live in the US for 5 Years
3. Fill out an application with the USICS
4. Have an interview
5. Take the citizenship test in English
6. Attend the ceremony and say the Oath of Allegiance
Describe the legal process it takes to become a naturalized citizen?
What is a Prime Minister?
the head of state in a parliamentary system
a form of government in which the power to govern lies directly in the hands of the people rather than through elected representatives
a system of government in which the people elect representatives to make policies and laws for them
an economic system in which the government owns the primary means of production
a form of government in which a single ruling party owns and controls all production and distribution of goods, and in which no private ownership is allowed
a form of autocracy where a person becomes the sole leader of a country by being born into a family of rulers
A monarchy that has limited power because of a Constitution
a form of government in which a small group has total control and power
a form of government where one person has unlimited power
a system of government where power lies with the legislative body and the leader of the country is part of the legislature
a system of government where power is shared between a central government and state
a system of government where power is located with the independent states and there is little power in the central government
a system of government where almost all power is located with the central government
government of a country by its own people, especially after having been a colony.
the use of authority or power in a cruel or unjust manner
obvious, having no need of proof
a government in which a single ruler possesses and abuses absolute power
an implied agreement among the people of an organized society that defines the rights, duties, and limitations of the governed and the government
Explain John Locke's theory of natural rights/law.
All people are entitled to the rights of Life, Liberty and Property
What does the phrase "natural rights" mean?
Rights that all people are born with that cannot be taken away
Describe Montesquieu's theory of separation of powers.
Government should be separated into three branches to prevent one branch from getting too powerful.
How did Montesquieu's idea of separation of powers influence our founding fathers?
They created a government system with three branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial
Compare Locke's natural law theory with that of Jefferson's natural rights listed in the D.O.I.
Jefferson changed it to: life liberty and the pursuit of happiness
What are the important ideas within the Magna Carta and how did they impact our founding fathers' idea of government?
1. Limited Government
2. Trial by Jury
3. King cannot put unjust taxes
4. Rule of Law
5. People have the right to rebel against the government if it is being unjust.
Explain the significance of the English Bill of Rights and how it impacted the Constitution.
a government document that expanded the powers of the English Parliament and expanded the rights of the people, as well as further limited the rights of the king; written by the members of the English Parliament in 1689
What was Common Sense and what impact did it have on our founding fathers?
a pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in 1776 to convince the American colonists to support becoming independent from England. It influenced Thomas Jefferson to write the DOI
What was the main reason the colonists become increasingly unhappy with the British Government? (Hint: "no taxation without representation!")
The king was violating their natural rights of life, liberty and property.
How did the British government respond when colonists in Boston became rebellious to their policies?
The pass the Intolerable Acts
What does it mean in the D.O.I. by "People are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights?"
People are born with rights that cannot be taken away from them.
What does it mean in the D.O.I when it says "Governments are instituted among men to secure these rights?"
The government is to serve the people, and should never take away people's natural rights.
What does it mean in the D.O.I when it says "Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed?"
The government is to protect the people, and people must follow the rules of the government.
What does it mean in the D.O.I when it says "Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it?"
People have the right to rebel against their government if it is being unjust.
What is the "rule of law"?
a concept that those who govern are bound by the laws; no one is above the law
Imposing taxes without their assent
The government should not put taxes on its citizens without them knowing.
Suspending trial by jury
Getting rid of a fair trial by jury
Limiting the power of the judges
Taking power away from judges and giving it to King George III
Citizens must house British soldiers
There are six main weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation. What are they?
1. Congress had no power to collect taxes.
2. Congress had no power to regulate trade.
3. Congress had no power to enforce its laws.
4. No single leader or group directed government policy.
5. No national court system existed.
6. Congress could not pass laws without the approval of 9 states.
7. The Articles could not be changed without the agreement of all 13 states.
What occurred during Shay's Rebellion?
2000 Massachusetts farmers rebelled against land foreclosures and debt from the Revolutionary War
Why did the Articles of Confederation need to be replaced?
It lack a strong central government. Gave too much power to the states. Did not unify the country.
What are the six main principles of the US Constitution?
1. popular sovereignty
2. limited government and the
3. rule of law
4. separation of powers
5. checks and balances
Who were the Federalists and what was their viewpoint on ratifying the Constitution?
a group of people in the early United States who favored the establishment of a strong national government and who worked for ratification of the U.S. Constitution
Who were the Anti-Federalists and what was their viewpoint on ratifying the Constitution?
a group of people in the early United States who opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution because they feared a strong national government and a lack of protection for individual rights. Would not ratify the US Constitution until a Bill of Rights was added.
What was to be added for the Anti-Federalists to ratify the Constitution? Why did they want this added?
Bill of Rights. To give more civil liberties to the citizens.
What are the Federalist Papers?
a series of essays written to explain and defend the proposed U.S. Constitution
What is the purpose of the Preamble to the Constitution?
The introduction to the US Constitution that outlines the six goals to improve the United States from the Articles of Confederation.
What is the significance of "We the People?"
The Constitution is based on the rule of the people.
What phrase means, "We the People?"
Which goal of the Preamble to U.S. Constitution states that the government should be a better union of states than the one created under the Articles of Confederation?
"to form a more perfect Union"
Which goal of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the government should work to protect the freedoms of the people and keep things fair?
" To establish justice"
Which goal of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the government should work to protect the country from its enemies?
"to provide a common defense"
Which goal of the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the government should preserve peace within the country?
" To insure domestic tranquillity"
Which goal in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that the freedom should be protected now and for future generations?
"to secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and our posterity"
Which goal in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution states that government should work to make things better for everyone in the U.S.?
"to promote a general welfare"?
What does the word ordain mean?
to establish something by law
How did the Constitution fix some of the weaknesses in the articles of Confederation?
Created the US Constitution
What is the first step to amend the U.S. Constitution?
Proposed by 2/3 of Congress
What is the second step to amend the U.S. Constitution?
Ratified by 3/4 of the State Legislators
What is the Supremacy Clause?
the clause that states that the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that national laws are supreme over state laws, found in Article VI
Why did the founding fathers make it difficult to amend the Constitution?
So that there would not be hundreds of changes to the United States Constitution
What are the Bill of Rights?
The first 10 amendments to the US Constitution
What are the five freedoms protected by the First Amendment?
What is eminent domain?
the right of the government to take private property for public use; the Fifth Amendment
When someone says they are "pleading the fifth", what do they mean?
They have the right to remain silent (Self-incrimination)
What does the "right to bear arms" mean?
Right to own a gun
What does it mean when it says you have the "right to legal counsel"?
Right to an attorney (Lawyer)
What does it mean that citizens are protected from unreasonable "searches and seizures"?
the process by which
police or other authorities who suspect that a crime has been committed do a search of a person's property and collect any relevant evidence to the crime; protection from
What does it mean that citizens have the right to a "trial by jury"?
a trial in which the issue is determined by a judge and a jury, usually with 12 members, whose job is to determine facts and make a judgment of guilty or not guilty; protected in the Sixth Amendment
What is due process?
a system of justice according to established rules and principles; based on the principle in the
Fifth Amendment that a person cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without appropriate legal procedures and protect
What is double jeopardy?
the prosecution of a defendant for a criminal offense for which he has already been tried;
What was the purpose of the 10th amendment?
Powers are reserved to the states
What does each letter is RASSDATEPS stand for?
1. R- Religion, Assembly, Speech, Press, Petition
2. A- Arms
3. S - Soldiers Quartering
4. S - Search and Seizure
5. D - Due Process, Don't have to testify, Double Jeopardy, Eminent Domain
6. A- Attorney
7. T- Trial by Jury in Civil Cases
8. E - Excessive Bail and Cruel and Unusual Punishment
9. P - People's Rights
10. S - States's Rights
What does the 14th amendment mean when we say "equal protection under the law?"
Everyone is equal under the law regardless of race, gender or religion.
What are Civil Rights?
the rights belonging to citizens; traditionally refers to the basic rights to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (i.e. race, gender, disability)
What does suffrage mean?
the right to vote
What rights are outlined in the 13th and 15th amendment and who gained those rights?
Civil War Amendments (rights to African Americans)
13th - Ended Slavery
14th - Equal Protection
15th - African American Males Right to Vote
What rights are outlined in the 19th amendment and who gained those rights?
Women's right to vote
What rights are outlined in the 24th amendment and who gained those rights?
Ended poll taxes, cannot discriminate against poor people.
What rights are outlined in the 26th amendment and who gained those rights?
youth suffrage. lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
All of the "other amendments" (13, 14, 15, 19, 24, and 26) were made for specific reasons. What do they all have in common?
Increased minorities participation in the government. (voting)
What is one way these "other amendments" (13, 14, 15, 19, 24, and 26) have had an impact on social movements?
Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act
What is one way these "other amendments" (13, 14, 15, 19, 24, and 26) have had an impact on participation in the political process?
Increased the amount of minorities voting in elections.
What is the structure of the Legislative Branch according to Article I of the Constitution?
House of Reps and the Senate
What does bi-cameral mean?
Two Houses/Two Chambers
What is the main role/responsibility of Congress?
Who is the leader of the House of Representatives?
Speaker of the House
What are the requirements to run for the House of Representatives?
1. Live in the district your represent
2. 25 years old
3. citizen (can be a naturalized citizen)
How many members are in the House of Representatives? How often are they elected?
Who is the leader of the Senate who breaks tie votes?
What is the President Pro Tempore?
the person who presides over the Senate when the Vice President is not present
How many members are in the Senate? How often are they elected?
What are the requirements to run for the Senate?
1. Live in the state you represent
2. 30 years old
3. citizen (can be a naturalized citizen)
What makes someone a "majority" leader in Congress?
the political party (out of the two major parties) with the most people in Congress
What makes someone a "minority" leader in Congress?
the political party (out of the two major parties) with the lease people in Congress
What is a standing committee?
permanent committee that focuses on specific subject areas (e.g. Education and the Workforce Committee)
What is a sub/select committee?
a small legislative committee appointed for a special purpose.
What is a conference committee?
a temporary panel composed of House and Senate members, which is formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers. Conference committees are usually convened to resolve differences on major and controversial legislation.
Define enumerated powers. What's another name for enumerated powers?
Express Powers; the powers specifically named and assigned to the federal government or prohibited to be exercised by the states under the U.S. Constitution, also known as delegated powers
What is the elastic clause? What is it also known as?
the power of Congress to pass all laws they deem necessary and proper for carrying out its enumerated powers (also known as implied powers)
List all of the powers of Congress. (Make sure you know what coin money and the word "regulate" means)
1. Collect Taxes
2. Establish Post Offices
3. Balance Budget
4. Maintain Military
5. Declare War
6. Coin Money
7. Regulate Trade
8. Punish Pirates
After a bill passes in the House OR Senate, it then goes where?
What are the two main things the president can do with a bill?
Sign It, Pocket Veto, Veto
If a president vetoes a bill, what can be done to overrule that veto into a law?
2/3 of congress can override the veto
Explain the two step process for impeaching a government official.
The House of Representatives holds hearings, then votes to impeach the President.
If the House of Representatives votes in favor, by a simple majority, the House sends Articles of Impeachment to the Senate.
The Senate conducts a trial of the President to decide if the President is guilty of the crimes charge in the Articles of Impeachment.
If two-thirds of the Senate votes to accept any Article of Impeachment, the President is automatically removed from office
What are checks and balances?
a principle of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches
How is the executive branch structured according to Article II of the Constitution?
It is headed by the president, following the vice president, and the president's cabinet.
What is the main role/responsibility of the executive branch? (Hint: there are three different ways to say it)
Carry Out Laws
What are the three qualifications to run for office of the president? How often is the president elected?
1. 35 years old; native born citizen; live in the US 14 years prior to running.
2. Every 4 years
Who has the power to declare war?
What are the different powers the president has, according to Article II of the Constitution?
sign or veto legislation, command the armed forces, ask for the written opinion of his Cabinet, convene or adjourn Congress, grant reprieves and pardons, and receive ambassadors.
How are treaties the president makes approved?
Approved by the Senate
What is the president's cabinet? Who appoints members to the cabinet?
1. persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers.
2. Appointed by the President, confirmed by the Senate
What are the two main roles of the president's cabinet?
Advise the president
Explain the president's power of executive order?
an order that comes from the U.S. President or a government agency and must be obeyed like a law
Explain the president's power to pardon?
the formal act of forgiving someone or excusing a mistake
Who appoints Supreme Court Justices? Who approves the appointment?
What is the title for the leader of the Supreme Court?
What is the only court Article III of the U.S. Constitution creates?
According to Article III of the Constitution, what are the types of cases the Supreme Court has the power to take?
Diagram the 3 courts at the federal level from lowest to highest.
Diagram the 4 courts at the state (Florida) level from lowest to highest.
Florida Supreme Court
General Trial Courts
What is the purpose of a trial court?
the local, state, or federal court that is the first to hear a civil or criminal case; involves a hearing and decision with a single judge, with or without a jury
What is the purpose of the appellate court system?
the courts where parties who are dissatisfied with the judgment of a U.S. District court may take their case
What is the Supreme Court power of judicial review?
the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution
the power of a court to be the first to hear a case on a specific topic
What is 'precedent'?
a judicial decision that is used as an example in dealing with later, similar cases
Why are juries important in the trial court?
They make the verdict of a case
What does segregation mean?
the separation of people, such as segregation based on race
What does it mean by "rights of the accused"?
he rights included in the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments: protection from unreasonable search and seizure, double jeopardy, and self-incrimination, the right to due process, right to a speedy and public trial, trial by jury, the right to be informed of criminal charges, right to be confronted by adverse witnesses, right to an attorney, protection from self-incrimination
Marbury v. Madison
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review
Plessy v. Ferguson
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not discrimination
Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not equal in public education
Gideon v. Wainwright
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the Sixth Amendment right that all defendants must be appointed a lawyer if they cannot afford their own attorney
Miranda v. Arizona
U.S. Supreme Court cases that upheld the Fifth Amendment protection from self-incrimination
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that the First Amendment does not protect all types of student speech in school
In re gault
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that juvenile court must comply with the Fourteenth Amendment
Tinker v. Des Moines
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld a student's First Amendment right to engage in symbolic speech in school
U.S. v Nixon
U.S. Supreme Court case that limited executive privilege
Bush v. Gore
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that states cannot violate the Equal Protection Clause under the Fourteenth Amendment when undertaking election recounts.
DC. v. Heller
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm
What is civil law?
law concerned with private relations between members of a community rather than criminal, military, or religious affairs
What is criminal law?
law that deals with crimes and the punishments associated with those crimes
What is military law?
laws that have been developed to meet the needs of the military
What is juvenile law?
law that deals with the actions and well-being of persons who are not yet adults
What type of law is meant to protect citizens?
Explain Constitutional Law.
the interpretation and implementation of the U.S. Constitution
What is "habeas corpus"?
the principle that keeps the government from holding a citizen indefinitely without showing cause
What is "ex post facto"?
a law that makes an act a crime after the crime has been committed
What is the same about both the U.S. and Florida Constitutions?
3. Bill of Rights
5. Three branches
What is the position in charge of the Florida executive branch?
What group makes up the Legislative branch in Florida?
Florida House of Reps and the Florida Senate
What is the Florida Declaration of Rights?
the part of the Florida Constitution that lists the basic rights guaranteed to all citizens who live in the state
What does the 10th amendment say about state powers?
Powers are reserved to the states
What is federalism?
a system of government in which power is divided and shared between national, state, and local government
How does federalism limit government power?
Takes powers away from the federal government, and gives it to the states.
What are implied powers and what are they also known as?
the power of Congress to make laws that they need to carry out their enumerated powers
What are expressed [also known as enumerated] powers? (Give 5 examples)
Powers that the federal government has.
1. Establish Post Offices
2. Maintain a Military
3. Foreign Policy
4. Declare War
5. Coin Money
What are reserved powers? (Give 5 examples)
Powers that the state government has.
1. Conduct Elections
3. Fishing and Hunting Laws
4. Establish Local Government
What are concurrent powers? (Give 5 examples)
Powers shared between the federal and state governments.
1. Roads and Highways
3. Borrow Money
4. Make and Maintain Laws
What is the Supreme Law of the Land?
The United States Constitution
What services do the local level of government provide?
Trash, Water, Police, Parks
Who is the executive leader of the local government?
What is an ordinance?
a local law
What is a city council?
a legislative body in the local level of government
Who are county commissioners?
the people who make up the city council
What is the purpose of a school board?
a group of persons elected to manage local public schools
What are the requirements to run for the Governor of Florida?
1. Resident of the state
2. 30 years old
3. US citizen (naturalized citizen)
What are the requirements to run for the State House of Representatives and State Senate?
The Constitution requires a Representative to be at least 21 years of age, a resident of the district from which elected, and a resident of Florida for two years prior to election
What are the ways an amendment can be proposed to the Florida Constitution?
State senators must be at least 21 years of age, an elector and resident of their electoral district.
What is the only way an amendment can be ratified to the Florida Constitution?
Citizens of Florida vote. If 60% says yes, then it is now a Florida Amendment.
What are the two major political parties in the U.S.?
Republicans and Democrats
Republicans and Democrats most differ on their ideas of....?
size of the government
What are basic beliefs of the Democratic Party?
large government, tax the wealthier, universal healthcare, more gun regulations
What are basic beliefs of the Republican Party?
smaller government, lower taxes, private healthcare and education, less government regulation on guns
How do 3rd parties affect elections?
Takes votes away from the two major parties
What is the Libertarian Party?
3rd party that is socially democrat and fiscally republican
What is the Communist Party?
3rd party that practices a communist system of government
What is the Socialist Party?
3rd party that practices a socialism form of government
What is a party platform?
a document stating the aims and goals of a political party
How does someone's experience affect their chance of winning an election?
People vote for people who have more experience in government.
How does someone's platform affect their chance of winning an election?
People vote on people based on their different believes and philosophies in their party platform.
How do someone's political advertisements affect their chance of winning an election?
Candidates use propaganda to influence voters.
How do debates affect their chance of winning an election?
Candidates explain their stance on the issues during the debate.
What is "Public opinion"?
views prevalent among the general public.
What are public opinion polls?
a survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions and then extrapolating generalities in ratio or within confidence intervals.
What is public policy?
a governments plan to fix problems and issues happening in the community.
How does the media act as a watchdog?
a person or group who acts as a protector or guardian. Usually in the media, and used when a politician goes against their promises.
What is an interest group?
people who are concerned with some particular issue or part of the government and who try to influence legislators or to act in their favor, also known as a special interest group
What is a lobbyist?
a person who conducts activities in order to influence public officials
What is a political action committee (PAC)
an independent political organization that seeks to promote the cause of a particular interest group, usually through raising money and campaigning to elect candidates who support the group's views
How can bias influence public opinion?
Media uses bias to influences peoples opinions about an issue or a candidate
How can propaganda influence public opinion?
Through propaganda the media can influences citizens views on a candidate or issue
What are the seven styles of propaganda?
2. Name Calling
3. Card Stacking
5. Glittering Generalities
7. Plain Folks
What is the difference between domestic & foreign policy?
foreign policy: issues or concerns about other countries around the world
domestic policy: issues or concerns in one's own country
What are the goals of US foreign policy?
1. Promote Peace around the world
2. Spread Democracy
3. World Health
4. National Security
5. International Trade
What's another way to refer to foreign policy?
What is an alliance?
a union between nations for assistance and protection
What is an ambassador?
a person sent as the chief representative of his or her own government in another country
What is the purpose of diplomacy?
the work of keeping up relations between the governments of different countries
What is a diplomat?
a person employed or skilled in diplomacy
What is a doctrine?
the principles in a system of belief
What is important about international relations?
To promote peace and trade
What is a treaty? Who has the power to pass treaties?
an agreement or arrangement between two or more countries.
Pass by the Senate
What is the U.S. State department?
Person in the presidential cabinet that advises the president with foreign affairs.
What are non-governmental organizations?
a voluntary citizens' group that is organized on a local, national or international level and works
; they perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to
governments, advocate for certain issues such as human rights or the environment, and
encourage political participation; also known as international non-governmental organization
What is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
a formal agreement among the governments of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to form a free
trade zone in North America and eliminate taxes on the buying and selling of each other's
World Trade Organization (WTO)
an international body founded in 1995 to promote international trade and economic
development by reducing taxes and other restrictions
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
a group of 28 countries that has agreed to protect each other in case of attack; founded in 1949
a permanent panel of fifteen judges appointed by the UN to nine-year terms to hear cases; cases argued before the court focus on disputes between nations who agree to accept its decisions
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
an agency of the United Nations established in 1946 to help governments improve the health and education of children and their mothers
United Nations (UN)
an organization founded in 1943 to keep the peace, develop friendly relationships among
countries, and improve the quality of life for the world's poor people; consists of 193 member
International Red Cross/Red Crescent
an organization that helps people around the world respond to natural disasters and that checks
Describe how the United States responded to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Bay of Pigs
a bay of the Caribbean Sea in Cuba: it was the site of an attempted invasion of Cuba by anti- Fidel Castro forces in April 1961.
a war between North and South Korea; South Korea was aided by the U.S. and other members of the United Nations from 1950-1953
a military conflict (1954-1975) between the Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the U.S.
World War I
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, U.S., Japan, Romania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
World War II
a war that began on July7, 1937 in Asia and September 1, 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945; it involved most of the world's countries
Iran Hostage Crisis
a 444-day period during which the new government of Iran after the Iranian Revolution held
hostage 66 diplomats and U.S. citizens, beginning on November 4, 1979 and ending on January