70 terms

APHG Chapter 10: DEVELOPMENT

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Terms in this set (...)

Miners of iron ore, mine owners, smelters, steel factories, architects, builders, construction
workers, etc. represent an example of the links connecting producers and consumers in a world
market. This is an example of .........
A commodity chain.
What are examples of core production processes?
Technology, education, research & development and high wages.
Which of the following is not associated with core production processes? a. technology b. low-wage labor c. education d. research and development e. institutions of higher learning.
low- wage labor
What does the word "development" imply about a country or state?
progress.
Modern ideas of development began with what event?
the Industrial Revolution.
Gross national product (GNP) measures the total value of goods and services produced by a country's corporations and individuals. It is standardized by
being calculated on a per capita basis.
What does the Gross Domestic Product measure?
production only within a country.
Which of the following has the highest per capita Gross national product (GNP)? Canada, United States, Japan, European Union
Japan
What economic activities would not be counted in Colombia's GNP?
drug trafficking
Which Asian nation has a per capita GNP above the world average?
Vietnam
What way of life makes up a large component of survival in countries with low per capita
GNP in the first stage of development?
the informal economy
What are the five stages of Rostow's development model?
On what did Rostow base his model?
traditional society, preconditions of take-off, take-off, drive to maturity, age of high-mass consumption. Based on his experience of Western Modernization.
List reasons for the criticism of Rostow's theory
All countries cannot conform to Rostow's development model. All countries cannot develop through the same process. All countries did not start with the same foundation. Some countries developed through colonialism.Some countries could be self-sufficient & not engage in international trade.
What is the only country in the Western Hemisphere with a dependency ration over 85?
Guatemala
Even if the Gross National Product (GNP) index is used to measure the well-being of a country, it will fail to show
the distribution of wealth
What is the principal structuralist alternative to Rostow's model of economic development?
dependency theory
The continuation of economic dependence on places in the periphery even after political
independence has been achieved is known as
neocolonialism
What kind of theories hold that economic disparities are built into the global economic
system?
Structuralist theories
What country adopted the U.S. dollar as its currency and quit using its own currency?
El Salvador
What are the 3 regions of Wallenstein's three-tier division of the world?
core, semi- periphery, periphery
The characteristics of each tier or region of the world economy.
Core:higher levels of education, higher salaries, more technology, and more wealth in general (USA); Semi-periphery:exploited by the core, exploited by the periphery (Brazil, India, Peru); Periphery: high birth rate, high death rate and low life expectancy at birth. (Russia, Chile, Kenya, Africa (except for South Africa), parts of South America, and Asia).
What is the most common job for girls trafficked from the periphery to wealthier regions?
domestic workers/street vendors
Which organization is headed by a U.S. citizen, is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and is
charged with combating poverty in peripheral countries?
World Bank
Which of the following have low levels of human development according to the Human Development Index (2005)?Libya and India; Haiti and Egypt; Yemen
Mali and the Congo;
According to the World Bank, which country had the highest external debt as a percentage
of exports of goods and services for low- and middle-income in 2006? - Mexico, Chad, Uruguay, Tunisia
Uruguay
How does Malaria affect children in the global periphery?
Malaria kills about 150,000 children under 5yrs. in the global periphery each month.
What country had a major epidemic in 2003?
Congo
What country's economic decisions triggered Argentina's severe economic crisis in 2001?
Brazil
Discuss several types of barriers to development.
Discuss several types of barriers to development. - corrupt government; the current recession; low standing of women, poor human rights, religion& traditional culture (Southwest Asia, North Africa. High debt obligations, over-reliance on imports/exports, restricted trade policies (Argentina).
What can governments do to remove development barriers?
Improving education & health care; make short-term loans available, access to credit & microcredit; increase exportation; use of appropriate technology; income distribution; empowerment of women; decent standard of living.
What is a major barrier to economic development in some African states such Malawi and
Zimbabwe?
corrupt government
What are Mexico's export processing zones called?
Maquiladoras
What is the spatial distribution of Mexico's export processing zones?
Northern Mexico. Also, Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas.
Why are the export processing zones located in Mexico and not Canada?
close to major cities/points of entry to US; ease of transportation into US; Mexican govt. originally insisted that maquiladoras be within 35 miles of US border.
Describe developments in China's coastal provinces and its interior regions.
Developments in China's coastal provinces have created economic disparities with interior regions. It made the coastal region prosperous while the interior is impoverished.Energy is produced in interior regions and consumed in coastal areas. Town and Village enterprise (TVE) produces for both domestic and export markets and are located in coastal provinces. Railroads have been developed to increase access to interior markets and special economic zones to promote global trade.
Subsistence forms of agriculture in peripheral areas lack what kind of nutrients that are necessary for health? These nutrients are possible to get from certain crops.
Subsistence forms of agriculture in peripheral areas lack proteins
Why do farmers in periphery not grow protein rich crops?
The soil is more easily depleted of nutrients; & to avoid shifting cultivation,
What percent of the continent of Africa is arid or semiarid?
2/3 0r about 67%
Arid or semi-arid condition is a contributing factor in what particular problem of the continent?
Desertification
What area is threatened by desertification in the U.S.?
New Mexico, Texas and on the Navajo Indian reservation in New Mexico and Arizona. Also, the Ogallala aquifer in Midwest. 30% of US land is threatened.
Tourism in peripheral countries may bring in millions of dollars a year but may not improve
the lives of most of the people living in the country. How can this happen?
Host countries tend not to own or control the tourism infrastructure; funds for hotel construction are often diverted from local needs; local leaders may have a stake in hotel or resort revenues; tourists consume large quantities of scarce commodities such as food and water
To get around the establishment of government quotas on imports (e.g .. cotton shirts or steel) to the U.S., some countries will shift the production of goods to
countries in the periphery and semi-periphery.
When the governments of countries like Nigeria, Pakistan and Brazil established new post- colonial capitals, what change did they make in the location of the capitals?
they moved away from coastal port areas.
Describe Port Gentile, Gabon as an island of development.
Port Gentile, Gabon near Africa was built by European oil companies, a foreign investor, and it provided paying jobs and infrastructure.
What is a Microcredit?
Making small loans to poor people, enabling them to create businesses of their own.
Describe how the Microcredit program works to be successful
program gives loans to poor people, preferably women, to encourage development of small businesses. Beneficiaries include people working in the informal, or underground, economy, and residents of remote rural areas;creates opportunities for self-employment liberating poor and women from poverty, gaining income; create institutions for financial services to the poor to increase in value, and thus enabling them to invest.e.g. Bangladesh.
In what areas of the world has Microcredit been successful?
tropical regions;areas with male dominance; desert regions; areas with a percentage of female entrepreneurs; South Asia, Bangladesh.
In what areas of the world has Microcredit not been successful? Why?
areas with high AIDS mortality rates, as in the periphery. Because such countries have low per capita GNP, and a large component of survival in the countries is an informal economy.
Why would a high percentage of laborers engaged in the production of food staples indicate a low, overall level of development?
Food is needed for survival also, the laborers survive on informal economy & form the bulk of the rural poor in developing countries or periphery.
Core-periphery theory can operate at a number of scales.
For example, Los Angeles can be
described as the core of Southern California.
The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the United States, with 80% unemployment and per capita income around $6,000, illustrates .....
peripheral processes within a core area country
Of 140 million Bangladeshis, how many are under the age of 20?
half, or 70 million
70% of the people of Bangladesh lived on less than __________ a day.
$1
To what does Muhammad Yunus compare poverty? Why?
darkness; No hope, no future.
What were some problems with borrowing from traditional moneylenders?
Imposing terrible requirements on borrowers, such as high interest rate.
What does Grameen mean?
Rural
What prestigious prize was awarded to Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen project in 2006?
Nobel Peace Prize
What did Minara and Dinislam buy with their Grameen loan?
A loom
Who receives 96% of Grameen loans in this mostly Muslim country?
Women
What is the payback rate on Grameen loans?
99%
List three examples of the 16 Decisions that are recited at each center meeting.
Balanced meals, cleanliness, family planning, working hard.
How are the Grameen loans used? Give three examples.
Livestock; poultry; agriculture; grocery stores.
Which of the following is not an example of a Grameen loan project?A) livestockB) grocery storeC) cell phone
D) TV
D) TV
Before Grameen Bank, poor villagers in rural Bangladesh could only borrow money from
__________.A) unscrupulous moneylenders
B) large commercial banksC) credit card companies
D) the government
A) unscrupulous moneylenders
Most Grameen loans go to women because...
Women have a longer vision.
Minara Begum said, "In our village, _______________ is gone."
A) Grameen BankB) povertyC) Muslim tradition
D) business
B) poverty
Which of the following are commonly associated with the industrial revolution? Specialty goods; Cottage industries; New forms of capital investment; the printing press; guild industries.
New forms of capital investment
Niger's economy is mostly limited to:...service industries; primary economic activities; export-processing activities; quaternary economic activities; nonbasic industry.
primary economic activities
Rostow's stages of development model predicts that each country's economy will progress from:
C. low per capita incomes to high per capita incomes and high consumption.
First tier world cities include:
B. Tokyo, London, New York.