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Sociology - Chapter 13
Terms in this set (49)
The enacting of policies and decisions on the part of officials within a political apparatus.
The means by which power is employed to influence the nature and content of governmental activities.
The system of production and exchange that provides for the material needs of individuals living in a given society.
The ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold.
A government's legitimate use of power.
A political apparatus (government institutions plus civil service officials) ruling over a given territorial order, whose authority is backed by law and the ability to use force.
A particular type of state, characteristic of the modern world, in which a government has sovereign power within a defined territorial area, and the population are citizens who know themselves to be part of a single nation.
The undisputed political rule of a state over a given territorial area.
A member of a political community, having both rights and duties associated with that membership.
A set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national community.
The beliefs that communities that share a cultural identity should have political autonomy, even within smaller units of a nation-state.
Legal rights held by all citizens in a given national community.
Rights of political participation, such as the right to vote in local and national elections, held by citizens of a national community.
Rights of social and welfare provision held by all citizens in a national community, including, for example, the right to claim unemployment benefits and sickness payments provided by the state.
A political system that provides a wide range of welfare benefits for its citizens.
A political system that allows the citizens to participate in political decision making or to elect representatives to government bodies.
A system of democracy in which all members of a group or community participate collectively in making major decisions.
A form of participatory democracy that allows citizens to vote directly on laws and policies.
Kings or queens who are largely figureheads. Real power rests in the hands of other political leaders.
Systems of democracy based on parliamentary institutions, coupled to the free-market system in the area of economic production.
A set of political ideas associated with Marx, as developed particularly by Lenin and institutionalized in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and some Third World countries.
an organization of individuals with broadly similar political aims, oriented toward achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral process.
A group organized to pursue specific interests in the political arena, operating primarily by lobbying the members of legislative bodies.
A theory of the limits of democracy, which holds that in large-scale societies democratic participation is necessarily limited to the regular election of political leaders.
pluralist theories of modern democracy
Theories that emphasize the role of diverse and potentially competing interest groups, none of which dominate the political process.
Small networks of individuals who, according to C. Wright Mills, hold concentrated power in modern societies.
Use of attacks on civilians designed to persuade a government to alter its policies, or to damage its standing in the world.
A type of terrorism that is local and linked to particular states and has limited objectives, which means that the violence involved is fairly limited.
A recent form of terrorism characterized by global ambitions, loose global organizational ties, and a more ruthless attitude toward the violence the terrorists are willing to use.
The activity by which people produce from the natural world and so ensure their survival.
Any form of paid employment in which an individual regularly works.
The application of knowledge of the material world to production; the creation of material instruments (such as machines) used in human interaction with nature.
Economic transactions carried on outside the sphere of orthodox paid employment.
division of labor
The specialization of work tasks, by means of which different occupations are combined within a production system.
The fact that in the division of labor, individuals depend on others to produce many or most of the goods they need to sustain their lives.
The sense that our own abilities as human beings are taken over by other entities. Karl Marx used the term to refer to the loss of workers' control over the nature and products of their labor.
A temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees in order to express a grievance or enforce a demand.
An economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit.
Business firms or companies.
The owner/founder of a business firm.
A situation in which a single firm dominates in a given industry.
The domination of a small number of firms in a given industry.
Capitalistic enterprise owned and administered by entrepreneurial families.
Capitalistic enterprises administered by managerial executives rather than by owners.
Practice in which large corporations protect their employees from the vicissitudes of the market.
Capitalistic enterprise organized on the basis of institutional shareholding.
Business corporations located in two or more countries.
Production processes monitored and controlled by machines with only minimal supervision from people.
A society no longer based primarily on the production of material goods but based instead on the production of knowledge. Its emergence has been linked to the development of a broad base of consumers who are technologically literate and have made new advances in computing, entertainment, and telecommunications part of their lives.
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