Human Environment (Chapter 13 Vocab)
List of vocabulary definitions for chapter 13 in the AP Human Geograohy text book (Eight Edition: People, Place, and Culture)
Terms in this set (35)
Man-made synthetic organic compounds (created in 1950s) used for refrigerants and propelants. It is a chemical substance that depletes the ozone layer
The primeval supercontinent that broke apart and formed the continents and oceans as we know them today (consisted of two parts: northern Laurasia and southern Gondwana)
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species
mass destruction of most species
Pacific Ring of Fire
Ocean-girdling zone of crustal instability, volcanism, and earthquakes resulting from the tectonic activity along plate boundaries in the region.
The most recent epoch of the late cenozoic ice age, beginning about 1.8 million years ago and marked by as many as 20 glaciations and interglacations of which the current warm phase.
A period of global cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand.
sustained warming phase between glaciations during an ice age
The most recent glacial period of the Pleistocene, enduring about 100,000 years and giving way, beginning about 18,000 years ago, to the current interglacial, the Holocene.
the current interglaciation period, extending from 10,000 years ago to the present on the geologic time scale.
Little Ice Age
Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation.
The threat to environmental security by human activity such as atmospheric and groundwater pollution, deforistation, oil spills, and ocean dumping.
resources that can regenerate as they are exploited
The system of exchange involving water in its various forms as it continually circulates among the atmosphere, the oceans, and above and below the land surface.
Subterranean, porous, water-holding rocks that provide millions of wells with steady flows of water.
Blanket of gases surrounding the Earth and located some 350 miles about the Earth's surface
Theory that the Earth is gradually warming as a result of an enhanced greenhouse effect in the Earth's atmosphere caused by ever-increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by various human activities.
caused by sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and natural gas are burned; acidified rainwater severly damages plant and animal life
Cycle whereby natural processes and human activity consume atmospheric oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and the Earth's forests and other flora, through photosynthesis, consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.
the clearing of forests to harvest wood for consumption, clear land for agricultural uses, and expanding settlement frontiers
The wearing away of the land surface by wind and moving water.
Non-liquid, non-soluable materials ranging from municipal garbage to sewage sludge; agricultural refuse; and mining residues.
Disposal sites for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume. The sites are typically designed with floors made of materials to treat seeping liquids and are covered by soil as the wastes are compacted and deposited into the landfill.
hazardous waste causing danger from chemicals and infectious organisms
hazardous-waste-emitting radiation from nuclear power plants, nuclear weapon factories, and nuclear equipment in hospitals and industry.
the total variety of plant and animal species in a particular place
Layer of the stratosphere with a high concentration of ozone; acts as a filter to absorbs most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation.
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
the first international convention aimed at addressing the issue of ozone depletion. Held in 1985, the Vienna convention was the predecessor to the Montreal Protocol.
An international agreement signed in 1987 by 105 countries and the European Union. The protocol called for a reduction in the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons of 50% by 2000
- a term used to describe the current geological period, starting from the 18th century when human activities began to impact global climate and ecosystem
Large movable plates under the Earth's surface.
green house effect
The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of the Earth that occurs when water vapor, carbon dioxide, and gases absorb and radiate thermal energy.
rare earth elements
Seventeen chemical elements that commonly occur together but are difficult to separate. They are commonly used to make high tech electronics and weapons systems.
resources that are present in present in finite quantities