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Appalachian Mountains

one of the two major mountain chains in the United States and Canada that runs some 1600 miles from Newfoundland to Alabama

Great Plains

a largely treeless area that continues the ascent to about 4000 ft

Canadian Shield

rocky, mainly flat area that covers nearly 2 million square miles around Hudson Bay

Rocky Mountains

series of mountain ranges that extend about 3000 miles from alaska to new mexico

Continental Divide

line of highest points in the rockies that marks the separation between rivers flowing eastward and westward

Great Lakes

Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior

Mackenzie River

canada's longest river wich is part of a river system that flows across the Northwest Territories to the Arctic Ocean


permanently frozen ground

prevailing westerlies

winds that blow from west to east in the middle latitudes


huge swampland that covers some 4000 square miles


people who move from place to place


land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska

St. Lawerence Seaway

north america's most important deep water ship route


sections of a waterway with closed gates where water levels are raised or lowered



Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages

Louisiana Purchase

A territory in the west central United States purchased from France in 1803; extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, and the gulf of Mexico to Canada


the free, open land in the American West that was available for settlement


communities outside of cities

representative democracy

where the people rule through elected representatives


goods sold to another country

free enterprise

an economic system in which private individuals own most of the resources, technology, and businesses, and can operate them for profit with little control from the government

service industry

kind of economic activity that produces a service rather than a produce

postindustrial economy

one where manufacturing no longer plays a dominant role


large corporations that have operations in several countries

New England

6 northern states of subregion: Maine, Virginia, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Rhode Island, and Connecticut


a region in which several large cities and surrounding areas grow together


the subregion that contains the 12 states of the north central united states


subregion that covers about 1/4 of the land area of the US and contains more than 1/3 of its population

metropolitan areas

large cities and nearby suburbs and towns


far-flung subregion consisting of 13 states


political unit

Dominion of Canada

the loose confederation of Ontario(upper Canada), Quebec(lower Canada), Nove Scotia, and New Brunswich, created by teh british North America Act in 1867


political union

parliamentary government

system where legislative and executive functions are combined in a legislature called a parliament


a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation

prime minister

head of the government

first nations

Canada's native americans


people of mixed french and native heritage


public land set aside for them by the government

Atlantic Provinces

the provinces in Eastern Canada-Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nove Scotia, and Newfoundland


The largest province in Canada


a prosperous and industrialized province in central Canada

Prairie Provinces

provinces west of Ontario and Quebec: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta

British Columbia

Canada's westernmost province, located within the Rocky Mountain range


one of Canada's territories and home to many of Canada's Inuit; it was carved out of the eastern half of the Northwest Territories in1999


The calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective

global network

worldwide interconnected group


an alliance

biological weapons

bacteria and viruses that can be used to harm or kill people, animals, or plants

urban sprawl

poorly planned development that spreads a city's population over a wider and wider geographic area


basic facilities, services, and machinery needed for a community to function

smart growth

efficient use and conservation of land and other resources

sustainable communities

communities where residents could live and work

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