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Ancient Egypt and Nubia

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Nubia
ancient region in Nile River Valley (southern Egypt/northern Sudan)
cataract
large waterfall; any strong flood or rush of water
delta
a plain at the mouth of the river formed when sediment is deposited by water
silt
fine soil found on river bottoms
throwstick
a type of boomerang used by ancient Egyptians to hunt for birds
Herodotus
Greek historian who explored Egypt in 400s B.C.
Who claimed there would "be no Egypt without the Nile"
Herodotus
Nile River
World's longest river; flows North from East Africa to Mediterranean Sea
4,000 miles
Length of Nile River
Two sources of Nile River
Blue Nile and White Nile
Blue Nile
Starts in highlands of Ethiopia and goes through desert
White Nile
Calmer river that begins deep in East Africa and flows through swamps
S-bend in Nile River
1,000 miles in length, north of joining of two Nile rivers, site of ancient Nubia
six
How many cataracts are in the Nile River?
Lower Nubia
Located between first and second cataract in Nile River
Little land for farming, no rain, lived close to banks of Nile River
What was Lower Nubia?
Upper Nubia
Located further south between second and sixth cataracts in Nile River.
Narrow strips of farmland with some rain, actual harvest in the Fall
What is Upper Nubia?
700 miles
Length of Nile through ancient Egypt
Narrow region with fertile strip of 6 miles on either side of the Nile River
Upper Egypt
Fertile, marshy area near Nile with deserts on either side
Lower Egypt
Nile splits into streams here and flows into Mediterranean
Delta plain
God of Nile
Hapi
Reason for wealth of farmland in Egypt
Silt formed by Nile overflowing its banks and flooding the land
The Black Land left by dark soil from Nile Floods
Kemet
Difference between Nile River and Mesopotamia
There were no flash floods on the Nile River
Vast desert on either side of the Nile River
Red lands
Hot sands of the desert
What shielded Nubia and Egypt from attack?
Wide open land between Tigris and Euphrates
What caused Mesopotamia to be wide open to invasions?
Nile Valley
What was path for trade with Central Africa?
Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea
What provided Egypt with access to Southwest Asia?
Before farming was established in 6,000 B.C.
When did Nubians set up their communities?
5,000 B.C.
When did Nubians establish farming communities?
Around delta and valley regions of Nile
Where were Egypt's early farming communities located?
Straw and mud bricks
What were their homes made of?
Fish, ducks and other birds
What was also part of the Nubian diet?
Aswan High Dam
What threatened to destroy ancient monuments along the Nile River?
Nile River
What was the highway for trade in ancient Egypt?
Caravans across the desert
Besides ships on the Nile River, how else did goods get to the Red Sea or Mesopotamia?
gold, silver, copper and fine pottery
Name some goods sold by caravans traveling from Nile River?
cedar wood, gold
What were some valuable goods sold in Egypt's bazaars?
cataracts
Why couldn't people travel through Ancient Nubia by river?
trade routes over land
What did the Nubians develop to famous traders in the ancient world?
Queen Hatshepsut
Who was a famous pharoah who ruled Egypt for her step-son?
15 years
How long was Hatshepsut in power?
Pharaoh
What is the title of ancient Kings of Egypt?
Dynasty
What is the name of a series of rulers from the same family or ethnic group?
Absolute power
What is the name of a type of ruler who has complete control over someone or something?
Regent
Who is someone who rules for a childd until the child is old enough to rule for themselves?
Thutmose III
Who was Hatshepsut regent for?
False beard
What was traditionally worn by pharaohs?
Sphinx
What is the creature with a lion's body and a human head?
History of her dynasties
What is really the history of ancient Egypt based on?
31
How many dynasties were there in ancient Egypt?
Kingdoms
How were the dynasties grouped by historians?
Gaps between kingdoms
How were times of trouble, like war, invasion or weak rulers noted on the Egyptian timeline?
Stable
In general, how was ancient Egypt's history?
Menes
Who was first king to unify Upper and Lower Egypt?
Memphis
What city did Menes build?
Two Lands
What is the name the ancient Egyptians gave to Upper and Lower Egypt?
White
What was the color of the crown of Upper Egypt?
Red
What was the color of the crown of Lower Egypt?
Narmer
What is another name for Menes?
Absolute power
What type of power did the pharaohs have/
Ma'at
Who was the goddess of truth?
Advisors or Ma'at
Who did the pharaohs ask for help in making their decisions?
Reed plants
What represents Lower Egypt on carvings?
Cone-shaped crown and false beard and tail
What were the symbols of Egyptian kingship?
3,100 B.C.
When was Egypt unified?
2,589 B.C.
When did builders start the great Pyramid?
2,686-2,181 B.C.
What was time period of the Old Kingdom?
1,991 - 1,786 B.C.
What was time period of the Middle Kingdom?
1,567 - 1,085 B.C.
What was time period of the New Kingdom?
Earthly form of Horus
What did ancient Egyptians believe their pharaohs were?
Horus
Who was the falcon god?
Pharaoh
Who provided the people of Egypt with Nile's yearly floods and harvests?
King Tutankhamen
Who was a famous pharaoh during the New Kingdom?
Bronze swords and body armor
What made the Egyptians unbeatable during the New Kingdom?
Studies of Tutankhamen's funeral treasures
What has taught us the most about ancient Egyptians?
Public works, building projects and irrigation projects
Name three things that the rulers of the Middle Kingdom achieved?
Timber and wood for buildings
What was most desired by trade in the Old Kingdom?
Provinces challenged pharaoh's government
What led to downfall of the Old Kingdom?
Because Thutmose III was too young to rule
Why did Hatshepsut appoint herself regent over her step-son?
15 years
How long did Hatshepsut rule over Egypt?
Land of Punt in East Africa
Where did Hatshepsut send a trade expedition?
Ivory, leopard skins, trees for incense
What was brought back from the Punt expedition?
She died
Why did Hatshepsut finally yield the throne to Thutmose III?
Led armies to war over Syria and Phoenicia
Why is Thutmose III considered to be such a great pharaoh?
Euphrates River
What was the farthest that Thutmose III advanced with his armies?
Civil war
What left Egypt weak by the end of the New Kingdom?
Alexander the Great
Who conquered Egypt after the end of the New Kingdom?
332 B.C.
What year did Alexander the Great conquer Egypt?
300 years
How long did the Macedonians rule over Egypt?
Queen Cleopatra VII
Who was the last Macedonian ruler of Egypt?
Romans
Who conquered Egypt under Cleopatra's rule?
To avoid humiliation by the Romans
Why did Cleopatra commit suicide?
2,000 years
How long would it be before Egypt governed itself after the death of Cleopatra?
Anubis
Who is the god of the dead?
Anubis
Who invented mummification according to an Egyptian myth?
100 days
How long did it take to mummify a body?
Afterlife
What did Egyptian's believe in after someone had died?
Religion
What played an important part of daily life in ancient Egypt?
Gods and goddesses
Who controlled the workings of nature according to ancient Egyptians?
God or Goddess
What did each Egyptian town have their own of?
Humans with animal heads
How were the gods or goddesses of ancient Egypt depicted?
Re
Who was the sun god?
Re and Horus
Who were the two principal gods of ancient Egypt?
Amon-Re
Who was the chief god of the ancient Egyptians?
Sunrise
When was Amon-Re born each day?
Sunset
When did Amon-Re die each day?
Desert area to the west
What did ancient Egyptians believe to be the land of the dead?
Osiris
Who was the God of the living and the dead?
Isis
Who was the "Great Mother" of ancient Egypt?
Horus
Who was the son of Osiris and Isis?
Thoth
Who was God of Wisdom and Writing?
Aton
Who was the God of Sun?
Akhenaton
Which pharaoh changed his name to show his devotion to Aton?
Monotheism
What practice did the pharaoh Akhenaton promote?
Polytheism
What is the practice of believing in many gods?
Food, clothing, personal possessions
What did the souls of the dead need to survive in the afterlife?
Kings and their associates
Who could participate in the afterlife in the Old Kingdom?
Middle Kingdom
When did it become possible for anyone to look forward to an afterlife?
In the desert in shallow pits
Where were people in Egypt buried before the building of the pyramids?
Mummy
What is the preserved body of a dead person?
To receive food offerings
When would the soul of the body reture to it?
Preserved appearance of the body
How did the soul recognize it's host?
Artificial preservation of a body
What is mummification?
2 or 3 months
How long did it take to mummify a body?
Remove the organs
What is first step of mummification?
Fill body with natural salt
What is second step of mummification?
Clean and bath body with spices
What is third step of mummification?
Wrap body in linen bandages
What is last step of mummification?
3 or 4
How many coffins did pharaoh's have?
Giza
Where is the Great Pyramid?
4 triangular sides with a square base
What is shape of the Great Pyramid?
The King's Chamber
What lies at the heart of the pyramid?
A temple
Where was the pharaoh's body held before burial?
Secret tunnels
How was the burial chamber of the pyramid concealed?
Granite blocks
How was the Grand Gallery sealed off after the pharaoh was buried?
2 million stones
How many stones did it take to build the Great Pyramid?
Mud brick
What were the earliest pharaoh tombs built from?
After crowned
When did planning of a pharaoh's tomb begin?
Khufu
Who was the Great Pyramid built for?
5,000 pounds
How much did each stone of the Great Pyramid weigh?
20 years
How long could it take to build a pyramid?
West bank of the Nile
Which side of the Nile River were all pyramids built on?
It is the land of the dead
Why did they always build on the west bank of the Nile River?
Main points of the compass - north, south, east and west
How did the builders situate the four sides of the pyramid?
Stone quarries and Nubia
Where did the stone come from for the building of the pyramids?
Sleds, wooden rollers and levers
How did the workers get the blocks of stone in place to build the pyramids?
Peasants from all over Egypt
Who were the workers who built the pyramids?
King Kafre
Who is depicted by the Great Sphinx?
20,000 people
How many people lived in the "Worker City" near Giza?
Smelting copper
What is the process used to remove impurities from the metal copper?
Barley and wheat
What was the bread in the worker's city made from?
Hot ashes
What were the pots of dough cooked on the make the bread?
Meat and fish
Besides bread, what else did the workers eat?
Small pieces of grinding stones in the bread
What caused many workers to have problems with their teeth?
Bes
Who is god who protected workers from danger?
Pyramid builders, priests, cooks, doctors, masons, weavers, grave diggers
Who were some of the workers that lived in the city near the pyramids?