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caucus system

a normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters

expressed powers

specific powers granted to the president under Article II, Sections 2 and 3, of the Constitutions

delegated powers

constitutional powers that are assigned to one government agency but exercised by another with the expressed permission of the first

inherent powers

powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the constitution bu are inferred from it

commander in cheif

the power of the president as commander of the national military and the state national guard units (when called into service)

War Powers resolution

a resolution of Congress declaring that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or if U.S. troops are already under attack or seriously threatened

executive agreement

An agreement between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate's "advice and consent"

executive privilege

the claim that confidential communications between the president and the president's close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president


the president's constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress within ten days of their passage while Congress is in session. A presidential veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress

pocket veto

a veto that is effected when Congress adjourns during the time a president has to approve a bill and the president takes no action on it. This veto cannot be overridden by Congress. It must be reintroduced in the next session.

line-item veto

the power of the executive to veto specific provisions (lines) of a bill passed by the legislature. In 1998 the Supreme Court ruled that the constitution does not authorize the line-item veto.

legislative initiative

the president's inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress

executive orders

the rules or regulations issued by the president that have the effect and formal status of legislation


the secretaries or cheif administrators of the major departments of the federal government. Cabinet secretaries are appointed bu the president with the consent of the Senate

National Security Council (NSC)

a presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president, the vice president, the secretaries of state, defense and the Treasury, the attorney general, the chair of the Joint Cheifs of Staff (as "Statutory Military Adviser"), the director of national intelligence (as intelligence adviser); and other officials invited by the president

White House Staff

the analysts and advisers to the president, often given the title "special assistant"

kitchen cabinet

an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance. Members of the official cabinet may or may not also be members of the kitchen cabinet.

Executive Office of the President (EOP)

the permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president. Created in 1939, the EOP includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, the National Security Council, and other agencies.

Permanent Campaign

presidential politics in which all presidential actions are taken with reelection in mind


a claim by a victorious candidate that the electorate has given him or her special authority to carry out promises made during the campaign.

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