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a substance that causes an immune response

Natrual Active Immunity

the formation of antibodies and memory cells after exposure to a microbe

Natural Passive Immunity

temporary protection by recieving antibodies through breast milk

Artificial active Immunity

the formation of antibodies and memory cells after exposure to a vaccine


dead or weakend organisms

Humoral Immunity

protection with antibodies

Cell Mediated Immunity

protection by the actions of cells


lymphocyctes that make antibodies

IgG Antibody

Y shaped, found in blood

IgD Antibody

Y shaped, found on B-Cells

IgE Antibody

Y shaped, found on Mast Cells

IgA Antibody

two Ys hooked together, found in secretions

IgM Antibody

5 Ys joined together, 1st antibody released in a Primary Immune Response

T- Cells

Lymphocytes that help control immune cells

Helper T-Cells

turn immune system on

Cytotoxic T-Cells

Destroys cancer transplanted or infected cells


signaling molecules





Attenuated Vaccines

a weakend microbe; Sabin Polio, Yellow Fever, MMR

Advantage of Attenuated Vaccines

Usually Lifetime protection

Disadvantage of Attenuated Vaccines

Can mutate to a potent form

Subunit Vaccines

made of genetically engineered fragments

Acellular Vaccines

made of only the parts of the microbe that stimulates the immune system

Anti-Idiotipic Vaccines

made of antibodies shaped like a microbe


inactivated bacteriotoxins

Preception Reactions

Combo of antigen and antibody producing a visible solid

Immuno Diffusion Reaction

precipitation reactions that occur on agar


using an electrical current to push the antigen and antibody toward each other in a gel

Direct Agglutination

detecting antibodies by visible clumping


the dilution at which the smallest amount of detectable antibodies exist


change in titer

Indirect Agglutination

clumping reactions in which antigen or antibody is attached to solid to solid particles


clumping reactions involving RBCs

Neutralization Test

microbe and parts serum are added to cells and culture, if cells live=part has antibodies-cells die=part does not have antibodies

Direct Flourescence

apply antibodies containing flourescence dye to microbe

Indirect Flourescence

microbe is placed on a slide, part serum added, anti-human antibodies w/ flourescence dye is added, if microbe lights up=positive for disease


abnormal immune response to a harmless substance


antigen that causes an allergy

Type 1 Hypersensitivity

Anapylaxis- occurs in minutes-hours. caused by mast cells and basophils releasing histamines. Local: Itching, sneezing, hives, asthma

Type II Hypersensitivity

Cytotoxic-usually treated w/ antihistamines

Type III Hypersensitivity

usually treated w/ epinephrine

Type IV Hypersensitivity

cell mediated or delayed, usually takes 1-3 days for macrophages and T Cells to migrate to an area and then react to a substance. Ex. Tb Test, Poison Ivy, Cheap Jewelry

Autoimmune Diseases

person is attacked by own immune system

Histocompatibility Antigens

surface proteins that code for individual

MHC Genes

code for individuality proteins


transplant of ones own tissue


transplant between identical twins


transplant b/w non-identical individuals of the same species


transplant from another animal species-dont last long

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