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50 terms

Ch. 16 Micro exam 3

STUDY
PLAY
Antigen
a substance that causes an immune response
Natrual Active Immunity
the formation of antibodies and memory cells after exposure to a microbe
Natural Passive Immunity
temporary protection by recieving antibodies through breast milk
Artificial active Immunity
the formation of antibodies and memory cells after exposure to a vaccine
Naccine
dead or weakend organisms
Humoral Immunity
protection with antibodies
Cell Mediated Immunity
protection by the actions of cells
B-Cells
lymphocyctes that make antibodies
IgG Antibody
Y shaped, found in blood
IgD Antibody
Y shaped, found on B-Cells
IgE Antibody
Y shaped, found on Mast Cells
IgA Antibody
two Ys hooked together, found in secretions
IgM Antibody
5 Ys joined together, 1st antibody released in a Primary Immune Response
T- Cells
Lymphocytes that help control immune cells
Helper T-Cells
turn immune system on
Cytotoxic T-Cells
Destroys cancer transplanted or infected cells
Lymphokines
signaling molecules
PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE
LOOK AT NOTES PIR
SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE
LOOK AT NOTES SIR
Attenuated Vaccines
a weakend microbe; Sabin Polio, Yellow Fever, MMR
Advantage of Attenuated Vaccines
Usually Lifetime protection
Disadvantage of Attenuated Vaccines
Can mutate to a potent form
Subunit Vaccines
made of genetically engineered fragments
Acellular Vaccines
made of only the parts of the microbe that stimulates the immune system
Anti-Idiotipic Vaccines
made of antibodies shaped like a microbe
Toxoids
inactivated bacteriotoxins
Preception Reactions
Combo of antigen and antibody producing a visible solid
Immuno Diffusion Reaction
precipitation reactions that occur on agar
Electrophoresis
using an electrical current to push the antigen and antibody toward each other in a gel
Direct Agglutination
detecting antibodies by visible clumping
Titer
the dilution at which the smallest amount of detectable antibodies exist
Seroconversion
change in titer
Indirect Agglutination
clumping reactions in which antigen or antibody is attached to solid to solid particles
Hemaglutination
clumping reactions involving RBCs
Neutralization Test
microbe and parts serum are added to cells and culture, if cells live=part has antibodies-cells die=part does not have antibodies
Direct Flourescence
apply antibodies containing flourescence dye to microbe
Indirect Flourescence
microbe is placed on a slide, part serum added, anti-human antibodies w/ flourescence dye is added, if microbe lights up=positive for disease
Hypersensitivity
abnormal immune response to a harmless substance
Allergen
antigen that causes an allergy
Type 1 Hypersensitivity
Anapylaxis- occurs in minutes-hours. caused by mast cells and basophils releasing histamines. Local: Itching, sneezing, hives, asthma
Type II Hypersensitivity
Cytotoxic-usually treated w/ antihistamines
Type III Hypersensitivity
usually treated w/ epinephrine
Type IV Hypersensitivity
cell mediated or delayed, usually takes 1-3 days for macrophages and T Cells to migrate to an area and then react to a substance. Ex. Tb Test, Poison Ivy, Cheap Jewelry
Autoimmune Diseases
person is attacked by own immune system
Histocompatibility Antigens
surface proteins that code for individual
MHC Genes
code for individuality proteins
Autograft
transplant of ones own tissue
Isograft
transplant between identical twins
Allograft
transplant b/w non-identical individuals of the same species
Xenograft
transplant from another animal species-dont last long