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110 terms

psych neuroscience/brain

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biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with links b/w biology and behavior
neuron
a nerve cell, basic building block of nervous system
dendrite
bushy, branchy extension of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body
axon
extension of a neuron, ending its branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue encasing the fibers of many neurons
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon, generated by movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in axon's membrane
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron, tiny gap
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse synaptic gaps between neurons
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and triggers muscle contraction, not enough leads to contractions or paralysis, linked to alzheimer's disease
endorphins
"morphine within" natural opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
dopamine
neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention, emotion, implicated with schizophrenia and parkinson's
serotonin
neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal, implicated in depression
norepinephrine
neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal
GABA
a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, low levels of this are linked to anxiety
refractory period
resting pause, neurons pumps positively charged ions to outside
resting potential
fluid interior of resting axon has negatively charged ions and outside has positively charged ions
threshold
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
all-or-none response
neurons reaction, they either "fire" or they don't
excitatory
"pushing a neurons accelerator"
inhibitory
"pushing a neurons brake"
santiago ramon y cajal
described gaps between individual nerve cells and said individual neurons must function as independent agents within nervous system
sir charles sherrington
noticed a neural impulse that was taking an unexpectedly long time to travel a neural pathway (inferred there must be a brief interruption to the transmission)
glutamate
a major excitatory neurotransmitter, involved in memory and perception of pain
agonist
excite
antagonist
inhibit
botulin
a poison that can form in improperly canned food, causes paralysis by blocking ACh release from sending neuron
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
CNS, the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
PNS, the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and organs
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptor to the central nervous system
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing info from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
somatic nervous system
division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
part of peripheral nervous system that controls glands and muscles of the internal organs,
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations "FIGHT"
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy "FLIGHT"
reflex
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
neural networks
interconnected neural cells, they can learn as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results
endocrine
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormones
chemical messengers mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys, secrete hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
"master gland" endocrine system's most influential gland, under the influence of the hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
lesion
tissue destruction
EEG
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
PET scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue, show brain ANATOMY
fMRI
a technique for revealing blood flow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans, show brain FUNCTION
brain stem
older part and central core of brain, responsible for automatic survival functions
medulla
the base of the brain stem, controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
nerve network in the brain stem that plays an important role controlling arousal
medulla, pons, reticular formation, thalamaus
brain stem from bottom to top
thalamus
brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of brain stem, directs messages to sensory receiving areas in cortex and transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to rear of brain stem, process sensory input and coordinate movement of muscles, and balance
limbic system
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brain stem and cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as food and sex (includes hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus)
amygdala
linked to emotion, part of limbic system, lima bean sized clusters
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus, directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, temperature of body) linked to emotion
cerebral cortex
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres, ultimate control and information processing center
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
frontal lobe
portion of the cerebral cortex lying behind forehead, involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgment, linked to personality
parietal lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear, receives sensory input for touch and body position
occipital lobe
portion of cerebral cortex lying at back of head, includes visual areas which receive visual info from opposite visual field
temporal lobe
portion of cerebral cortex lying roughly above ears, includes auditory areas, each of which receive auditory info primarily from opposite ear
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lob that controls voluntary movements
sensory cortex
area at front of parietal lobe that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
association areas
areas of cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, involved in higher level mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking
aphasia
impairment of language, caused by left hemisphere damage to broca's area of wernicke's area
broca's area
controls language expression (output), an area of frontal lobe in left hemisphere, directs muscle movements involved in speech
wernicke's area
controls language reception (input), involved in language comprehension and expressions, in left temporal lobe
plasticity
brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on effects of experience on brain development
corpus callosum
large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly corpus callosum) between them
CAT scan
measures the density of the brain
hippocampus
triggers memory in the brain, part of the limbic system
pons
part of the brainstem, motor skills and coordination
spinal cord
keeps the CNS and the brain connected, is like an info traveling highway
cerebellum
controls voluntary movement
cerebral cortex
web of nerves, is surface of whole brain, processes information
corpus collasum
connects the hemispheres, allows hemispheres to communicate
thalamus
responsible for senses (except smell)
hypothalamus
responsible for maintenance activities, (eat, drink, temperature)
reticular formation
part of brain stem, controls arousal
medulla
controls heart rate and breathing
left frontal lobe
where is broca's area?
left temporal lobe
where is wernicke's area?
motor
what cortex comes before the sensory cortex?
vision
what is the occipital lobe in charge mostly of?
lateral fissure
the fissure separating the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebrum.
reuptake
the process by which the presynaptic terminal of a neuron reabsorbs and recycles the molecules of neurotransmitter it has previously secreted in conveying an impulse to another neuron.
Franz Gall
Who would have been most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain region of someone's skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality?
endorphins
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called:
ACh antagonist
Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n):
synaptic gaps
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:
raises, dilates
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.
neural networks
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different:
norepinephrine
which chemical messenger is a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
pet scan
which test would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
plasticity
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:
away from, toward
An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.
myelin sheath
Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is most directly associated with the degeneration of:
low, low
Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
agonist
A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n):
sensory and motor neurons
The peripheral nervous system consists of:
bladder contractions
The autonomic nervous system most directly controls
severed spinal cord
Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a:
raises, raises
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels.
alcoholism
Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to:
frontal
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
plasticity
Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates:
left cerebral hemisphere
Research with split-brain patients led Michael Gazzaniga to conclude that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.