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90 terms

Medical Term Chapter 10

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cerebell/o
cerbellum
cerebr/o
cerebrum
dur/o
dura mater
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glial cells
lept/o
thin, slender
mening/o, meningi/o
membranes, meninges
my/o
muscle
myel/o
spinal cord (mean bone marrow in other contexts)
neur/o
nerve
pont/o
pons
radicul/o
nerve root (of spinal nerves)
thalam/o
thalamus
thec/o
sheath (refers to the meninges)
vag/o
vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
alges/o, -algesia
excessive sensitivity to pain
-algia
pain
caus/o
burning
comat/o
deep sleep (coma)
esthesi/o, -esthesia
feeling, nervous sensation
kines/o, kinesi/o, -kinesa, -kinesis, -kinetic
movement
-lepsy
seizure
lex/o
word, phrase
-paresis
weakness
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
-praxia
action
-sthenia
strength
syncop/o
to cut off, cut short
tax/o
order, coordination
hematoma
collections of blood
subdural hematoma
results from the tearing of veins between the dura and arachnoid membranes.
epidural hematoma
occurs between the skull and the dura as the result of a ruptured meningeal artery.
intracerebral hematoma
is cause by bleeding directly into brain tissue, such as can occur in the case of uncontrolled hypertension.
glioblastoma
a highly malignant tumor
poliomyelitis
a viral disease that affects the gray matter of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis of muscles that rely on the damaged neurons.
anesthesia
lack of normal sensation (e.g., absence of sense of touch or pain).
What is the combining form meaning nerve?
neur/o
The outer most layer of the meninges is the?
dura meter
What is the combining form meaning sensitivity to pain?
alges/o
The uppermost and largest part of the brain that controls and integrates motor, sensory, and higher mental functions is the..
cerebrum
A neurotransmitter chemical substances released at the ends of some nerve cells is...
acetylcholine
A type of neuroglial cell that transport water and salts between capillaries and neurons is a(an)?
astrocyte
What is te suffix meaning prolapse?
-ptosis
What is the suffix meaning speech?
-phasia
Nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord are called...
motor nerves
What is the suffix meaning paralysis?
-plegia
What is the combining form meaning cold?
cry/o
What is the combining form meaning spinal cord?
myel/o
The part of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, bodily temperature, and the secretions from the pituitary gland is the?
hypothalamus
What is the combining form meaning coordination?
tax/o
Interconnecting reservoirs or canals in the interior of the brain are called?
ventricles
What is the combining form meaning sleep?
narc/o
What is the combining form meaning nervous sensation?
esthesi/o
What is the suffix meaning strength?
-sthenia
What is the suffix meaning slight paralysis?
-paresis
What is the combining form meaning nerve root?
radicul/o
Disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system
neuropathy
Neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; deficient in patients with Parkinson disease
dopamine
Tumor (benign) of the meninges
meningloma
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp., and secretions from the gland
hypothalamus
Head pain; headache
cephalgia
Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness
syncope
hypothalamus contains neurons that control:
body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions such as fear and pleasure.
The thalamus plays a major role in maintaining levels of?
awareness and consciousness. It decides what is and what is not important, selectively processing and relaying sensory information to the cerebral cortex.
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
functions to coordinate voluntary movements and to maintain balance and posture.
The nervous system is divided into two major divisions:
The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system.
The central nervous system consists of the...
brain and spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system consists of...
cranial nerves and spinal nerves, plexuses, and peripheral nerves throughout the body.
plexus
a large network of nerves in the peripheral nervous system.
microscopic fiber leading from the cell body that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell...
Axon
Large, interlacing network of nerves...
Plexus
Three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord...
meninges
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse...
dendrite
Outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter...
cerebral cortex
glial cell that transports water and salts between capillaries and nerve cells...
astrocyte
glial cell that produces myelin...
oligodendroglial cell a.k.a oligodendrocyte
A nerve cell that transmits a nerve impulse...
neuron
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebra...
cauda equina
lack of nerve strength...
neurasthenia
inability to speak..
aphasia
inability to perform purposeful actions..
apraxia
condition of insensitivity to pain...
analgesia
condition of loss of sensation...
anesthesia
sensations of tingling, numbness, or "pins and needles"..
paresthesia
lack of coordination...
ataxia
excessive movement...
hyperkinesia
abnormal, involuntary, spasmodic movements...
dyskinesia
reading, writing, and learning disorders
dyslexia
partial paralysis
paresis