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Karl Marx

The feeling of extreme powerlessness experienced by the working poor is similar to the concept of alienation that was developed by sociologist

feminization of poverty

a belief that more and more women are impoverished


most government benefits go to which class

kingsley davis and wilbert moore

theorists is most strongly associated with the structural functionalist view of social stratification. talented people needed to fill the most important positions.

ascribed stratification systems

the characteristics individuals are born with determine one's position in society

Tumin and Simpson

sociologist argue that if stratification was functional, positions would recieve similar benefits and ask the question, "how can society decide on which positions are important?"

economic position

a class system is a social ranking based primarily on


term used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society

functionalist perspective

which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become medical doctors if they could make as much money and gain as much respect working as elevator operators?

upward intragenerational mobility

A woman who was born and raised in a poor family begins her career as a postal clerk and later in life becomes a regional supervisor for the US Postal Service. she has experienced:


all of a person's material assets

low paying jobs

one of the major sources of poverty


ideas that legitimize certain social arrangements. These include values and norms that rationalize the existing social structure

absolute poverty

Those who cannot reach a minimum standard. Standards include adequate food, acceptable housing, sufficient clothing.

relative poverty

Poverty by comparison. Poor people are those at the bottom. Implies that poverty is a permanent feature.

structureal mobility

movement of categories of people

vertical mobility

Exists if the change inclass status corresponds to a gain or loss in rank or prestige

Intergenerational mobility

changes in the social position of children relative to their parents. Despite the myths, mobility is similar to other industrial countries.

Intragenerational mobility

Changes in a person's social position during the person's lifetime

status inconsistency

having a dissimilar ranking in three key dimensions

Karl Marx

thought there were two economically-based social classes. the bourgeoisie are the capitalist class. Control the means of production, or the necessary resources to create capital. Control the norms and values of society. Use their power to make the distribution of resources seem "fair" and justified. use social control to maintain their control in society.

social stratification

refers to how individuals and groups are layered or ranked in society according to how many valued resources they possess

achieved stratification systems

individuals are allowed to earn positions through their ability and effort

open systems

Boundaries are less firm, social statuses are determined by achievement, legal and ideological supports give poeple opportunities to change their social ranking

closed systems

caste, slavery and estate systems. fixed social position determined at birth

caste system

a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity

3 percent

What percent of the federa budget goes to AFDC recipients through AFDC, Food Stamp, and Medicaid programs

social costs of poverty

loss of talent and abilities. Financial cost of addressing needs of and regulating the poor. Cultural contradiction of values

class system

economic or cultural arrangements of groups in society.

status Consistency

similar ranking in three key dimensions; education, wealth, and occupation


certain type of occupation tha tusually requires special abilities and long training

cultural capital

knowledge and access to important information in society lead to acquiring wealth and power

social capital

networks with others who have influence on acquistions of wealth and power

objective approach

uses estalished categories (upper, middle, and lower classes)

reputational approach

relies on opinion

subjective approach

self categorization

culture of poverty

poor have a set of norms and values different from non-poor (these ideas keep them from success). Children learn from parents and maintain cycle

structural poverty

Blaming the poor for their own poverty is inaccurate. social arrangements created by wealthier classes work against upward mobility of poor

Melvin Tumin and Richard Simpon

All occupations are important. Difficult to rank the importance of positions in society.

Mosca's view

societ is stratified by the ruling class. poliotical organanzations are a result of inequalities. people in positions of power use those positions to gain rewards


the working class, the have-nots.

Lenski's view

both conflict and functionalist theories are neither true nor false. functionalists are right when analyzing societies with basic resources (traditional societies). Conflict theorists are right when analyzing societies that have a surplus (Associational Societies)

conspicious consumption

is displaying goods in a way that others will notice and that will presumably earn the owner respect

Peggy McIntosh

discovered that "Whiteness" opened doors of opportunity. Being white is taken for granted


marrying within their own group

minority groups

determined by history and ideology


An attitude that predisposes an individual to prejudge an entire category of people, emotional


the unfair and harmful treatment of people based upon a group membership

self-fulfilling prophesy

is the incorporation of sterotyped behavior into an individual's view of themselves

individual discrimination

is action taken against minority group members which can take the form of exclusion

Institutional discrimation

intentional and unintentional actions engrained in the normal or routine part of the way an organization operates that have consequences that restrict minority group members

Purposeful or De jure discrimination

is built into the law or is part of the explicit policies of an organization

Unintentional or De facto discrimination

results from broad policies that favor one group and disadvantage another

Past-in-present discrimination

practices from the past that may no longer be allowed but that continue to affect people today

frustraion-aggression theory

theory which states that act of prejudice and discrimination are motivated by anger and frustration individuals feel when they cannot achieve their work or goals


is a form of aggression action motivated by frustration against minority groups because an individual is unable to vent frustration toward the real target or cause


blending of the culture and structure of one group into society

cultural assimilation

adopting dominant culture as primary culture

structural assimilation

interation primarily within own group or not


ethnic groups maintain distinctiveness

ethnic revival

demand for autonomy or independence

symbolic ethnicity

younger generations attempt to preserve ethnic culture


The forceful exclusion of a racial or ethnic group from a society. Examples include Native American relocation


The process by which one group exterminates anotiher. Examples include the Nazi extermination of Jews.


white, Anglo-Saxon protestant. most powerful group. original immigrant settlers; mosty northern European

Mexican Americans

The largest ethnic minority

Chinese Americans

Early immigrants: mines and railroads. Hostility led to urban enclaves

Japanese Americans

Early immigrants soon turned to farming

Functionalist view

Manning Nash identified three functions for racially prejudiced beliefs

exploitation theory

racial subordination keeps minorities in low-paying jobs thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor

split labor market theory

characterizes the labor market as having two levels

primary market

clean jobs

secondary market

minorities, especially from the urban underclass, are most likely to work in this market.


persons with ambiguous genitalia


expectation that people will be sexually attracted to members of the other sex

gender-role socialization

learning the cultural and attitudinal qualities associated with males and female

Margaret Mead

points to the importance of cultural conditioning. Her findings confirm the influential role of culture socialization on gender roles


social characteristic that varies from one society to another


social arrangement where men dominate women, children and lower status men


ideology maintaining women are inferior to men, justifying discrimination. Example:Government, armed forces, large coporations, universities, media, and medical establishments


the roles we play in institions differ by sex, as well as age

institutional discrimination

woven into the social structure and taken for granted

De jure discrimination

deliberate discrimination, often justified by beliefs about women's inability to carry out certain tasks.

De facto discrimination

unequal treatment that is unintended

side effect discrimination

rests on links between practices in different institutions

Past-in-present discrimination

practices from the past that may no longer be allowed still affect people

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