The feeling of extreme powerlessness experienced by the working poor is similar to the concept of alienation that was developed by sociologist
kingsley davis and wilbert moore
theorists is most strongly associated with the structural functionalist view of social stratification. talented people needed to fill the most important positions.
ascribed stratification systems
the characteristics individuals are born with determine one's position in society
Tumin and Simpson
sociologist argue that if stratification was functional, positions would recieve similar benefits and ask the question, "how can society decide on which positions are important?"
term used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society
which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become medical doctors if they could make as much money and gain as much respect working as elevator operators?
upward intragenerational mobility
A woman who was born and raised in a poor family begins her career as a postal clerk and later in life becomes a regional supervisor for the US Postal Service. she has experienced:
ideas that legitimize certain social arrangements. These include values and norms that rationalize the existing social structure
Those who cannot reach a minimum standard. Standards include adequate food, acceptable housing, sufficient clothing.
Poverty by comparison. Poor people are those at the bottom. Implies that poverty is a permanent feature.
Exists if the change inclass status corresponds to a gain or loss in rank or prestige
changes in the social position of children relative to their parents. Despite the myths, mobility is similar to other industrial countries.
thought there were two economically-based social classes. the bourgeoisie are the capitalist class. Control the means of production, or the necessary resources to create capital. Control the norms and values of society. Use their power to make the distribution of resources seem "fair" and justified. use social control to maintain their control in society.
refers to how individuals and groups are layered or ranked in society according to how many valued resources they possess
achieved stratification systems
individuals are allowed to earn positions through their ability and effort
Boundaries are less firm, social statuses are determined by achievement, legal and ideological supports give poeple opportunities to change their social ranking
What percent of the federa budget goes to AFDC recipients through AFDC, Food Stamp, and Medicaid programs
social costs of poverty
loss of talent and abilities. Financial cost of addressing needs of and regulating the poor. Cultural contradiction of values
knowledge and access to important information in society lead to acquiring wealth and power
culture of poverty
poor have a set of norms and values different from non-poor (these ideas keep them from success). Children learn from parents and maintain cycle
Blaming the poor for their own poverty is inaccurate. social arrangements created by wealthier classes work against upward mobility of poor
Melvin Tumin and Richard Simpon
All occupations are important. Difficult to rank the importance of positions in society.
societ is stratified by the ruling class. poliotical organanzations are a result of inequalities. people in positions of power use those positions to gain rewards
both conflict and functionalist theories are neither true nor false. functionalists are right when analyzing societies with basic resources (traditional societies). Conflict theorists are right when analyzing societies that have a surplus (Associational Societies)
is displaying goods in a way that others will notice and that will presumably earn the owner respect
discovered that "Whiteness" opened doors of opportunity. Being white is taken for granted
An attitude that predisposes an individual to prejudge an entire category of people, emotional
is the incorporation of sterotyped behavior into an individual's view of themselves
is action taken against minority group members which can take the form of exclusion
intentional and unintentional actions engrained in the normal or routine part of the way an organization operates that have consequences that restrict minority group members
Purposeful or De jure discrimination
is built into the law or is part of the explicit policies of an organization
Unintentional or De facto discrimination
results from broad policies that favor one group and disadvantage another
practices from the past that may no longer be allowed but that continue to affect people today
theory which states that act of prejudice and discrimination are motivated by anger and frustration individuals feel when they cannot achieve their work or goals
is a form of aggression action motivated by frustration against minority groups because an individual is unable to vent frustration toward the real target or cause
The forceful exclusion of a racial or ethnic group from a society. Examples include Native American relocation
The process by which one group exterminates anotiher. Examples include the Nazi extermination of Jews.
white, Anglo-Saxon protestant. most powerful group. original immigrant settlers; mosty northern European
racial subordination keeps minorities in low-paying jobs thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor
minorities, especially from the urban underclass, are most likely to work in this market.
learning the cultural and attitudinal qualities associated with males and female
points to the importance of cultural conditioning. Her findings confirm the influential role of culture socialization on gender roles
ideology maintaining women are inferior to men, justifying discrimination. Example:Government, armed forces, large coporations, universities, media, and medical establishments
De jure discrimination
deliberate discrimination, often justified by beliefs about women's inability to carry out certain tasks.