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86 terms

Sociology ch 7, 8, 9

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Karl Marx
The feeling of extreme powerlessness experienced by the working poor is similar to the concept of alienation that was developed by sociologist
feminization of poverty
a belief that more and more women are impoverished
middle
most government benefits go to which class
kingsley davis and wilbert moore
theorists is most strongly associated with the structural functionalist view of social stratification. talented people needed to fill the most important positions.
ascribed stratification systems
the characteristics individuals are born with determine one's position in society
Tumin and Simpson
sociologist argue that if stratification was functional, positions would recieve similar benefits and ask the question, "how can society decide on which positions are important?"
economic position
a class system is a social ranking based primarily on
stratification
term used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society
functionalist perspective
which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become medical doctors if they could make as much money and gain as much respect working as elevator operators?
upward intragenerational mobility
A woman who was born and raised in a poor family begins her career as a postal clerk and later in life becomes a regional supervisor for the US Postal Service. she has experienced:
wealth
all of a person's material assets
low paying jobs
one of the major sources of poverty
ideology
ideas that legitimize certain social arrangements. These include values and norms that rationalize the existing social structure
absolute poverty
Those who cannot reach a minimum standard. Standards include adequate food, acceptable housing, sufficient clothing.
relative poverty
Poverty by comparison. Poor people are those at the bottom. Implies that poverty is a permanent feature.
structureal mobility
movement of categories of people
vertical mobility
Exists if the change inclass status corresponds to a gain or loss in rank or prestige
Intergenerational mobility
changes in the social position of children relative to their parents. Despite the myths, mobility is similar to other industrial countries.
Intragenerational mobility
Changes in a person's social position during the person's lifetime
status inconsistency
having a dissimilar ranking in three key dimensions
Karl Marx
thought there were two economically-based social classes. the bourgeoisie are the capitalist class. Control the means of production, or the necessary resources to create capital. Control the norms and values of society. Use their power to make the distribution of resources seem "fair" and justified. use social control to maintain their control in society.
social stratification
refers to how individuals and groups are layered or ranked in society according to how many valued resources they possess
achieved stratification systems
individuals are allowed to earn positions through their ability and effort
open systems
Boundaries are less firm, social statuses are determined by achievement, legal and ideological supports give poeple opportunities to change their social ranking
closed systems
caste, slavery and estate systems. fixed social position determined at birth
caste system
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
3 percent
What percent of the federa budget goes to AFDC recipients through AFDC, Food Stamp, and Medicaid programs
social costs of poverty
loss of talent and abilities. Financial cost of addressing needs of and regulating the poor. Cultural contradiction of values
class system
economic or cultural arrangements of groups in society.
status Consistency
similar ranking in three key dimensions; education, wealth, and occupation
prestigious
certain type of occupation tha tusually requires special abilities and long training
cultural capital
knowledge and access to important information in society lead to acquiring wealth and power
social capital
networks with others who have influence on acquistions of wealth and power
objective approach
uses estalished categories (upper, middle, and lower classes)
reputational approach
relies on opinion
subjective approach
self categorization
culture of poverty
poor have a set of norms and values different from non-poor (these ideas keep them from success). Children learn from parents and maintain cycle
structural poverty
Blaming the poor for their own poverty is inaccurate. social arrangements created by wealthier classes work against upward mobility of poor
Melvin Tumin and Richard Simpon
All occupations are important. Difficult to rank the importance of positions in society.
Mosca's view
societ is stratified by the ruling class. poliotical organanzations are a result of inequalities. people in positions of power use those positions to gain rewards
proletariats
the working class, the have-nots.
Lenski's view
both conflict and functionalist theories are neither true nor false. functionalists are right when analyzing societies with basic resources (traditional societies). Conflict theorists are right when analyzing societies that have a surplus (Associational Societies)
conspicious consumption
is displaying goods in a way that others will notice and that will presumably earn the owner respect
Peggy McIntosh
discovered that "Whiteness" opened doors of opportunity. Being white is taken for granted
endogamous
marrying within their own group
minority groups
determined by history and ideology
prejudice
An attitude that predisposes an individual to prejudge an entire category of people, emotional
Discrimination
the unfair and harmful treatment of people based upon a group membership
self-fulfilling prophesy
is the incorporation of sterotyped behavior into an individual's view of themselves
individual discrimination
is action taken against minority group members which can take the form of exclusion
Institutional discrimation
intentional and unintentional actions engrained in the normal or routine part of the way an organization operates that have consequences that restrict minority group members
Purposeful or De jure discrimination
is built into the law or is part of the explicit policies of an organization
Unintentional or De facto discrimination
results from broad policies that favor one group and disadvantage another
Past-in-present discrimination
practices from the past that may no longer be allowed but that continue to affect people today
frustraion-aggression theory
theory which states that act of prejudice and discrimination are motivated by anger and frustration individuals feel when they cannot achieve their work or goals
scapegoating
is a form of aggression action motivated by frustration against minority groups because an individual is unable to vent frustration toward the real target or cause
assimilation
blending of the culture and structure of one group into society
cultural assimilation
adopting dominant culture as primary culture
structural assimilation
interation primarily within own group or not
pluralism
ethnic groups maintain distinctiveness
ethnic revival
demand for autonomy or independence
symbolic ethnicity
younger generations attempt to preserve ethnic culture
Expulsion
The forceful exclusion of a racial or ethnic group from a society. Examples include Native American relocation
Annihilation
The process by which one group exterminates anotiher. Examples include the Nazi extermination of Jews.
WASP
white, Anglo-Saxon protestant. most powerful group. original immigrant settlers; mosty northern European
Mexican Americans
The largest ethnic minority
Chinese Americans
Early immigrants: mines and railroads. Hostility led to urban enclaves
Japanese Americans
Early immigrants soon turned to farming
Functionalist view
Manning Nash identified three functions for racially prejudiced beliefs
exploitation theory
racial subordination keeps minorities in low-paying jobs thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor
split labor market theory
characterizes the labor market as having two levels
primary market
clean jobs
secondary market
minorities, especially from the urban underclass, are most likely to work in this market.
Intersexed/hermaphrodites
persons with ambiguous genitalia
heteronormativity
expectation that people will be sexually attracted to members of the other sex
gender-role socialization
learning the cultural and attitudinal qualities associated with males and female
Margaret Mead
points to the importance of cultural conditioning. Her findings confirm the influential role of culture socialization on gender roles
gender
social characteristic that varies from one society to another
Patriarchy
social arrangement where men dominate women, children and lower status men
Sexism
ideology maintaining women are inferior to men, justifying discrimination. Example:Government, armed forces, large coporations, universities, media, and medical establishments
Institutions
the roles we play in institions differ by sex, as well as age
institutional discrimination
woven into the social structure and taken for granted
De jure discrimination
deliberate discrimination, often justified by beliefs about women's inability to carry out certain tasks.
De facto discrimination
unequal treatment that is unintended
side effect discrimination
rests on links between practices in different institutions
Past-in-present discrimination
practices from the past that may no longer be allowed still affect people