113 terms

ch. 13 hard.

the obligations of this and confession weighed heavily upon people; Church doctrine held that sins had to be washed away before the souls of the dead could enter heaven, until then they suffered in purgatory; sins were cleansed through this; the performance of acts of contrition assigned after confession; you were supposed to do "good works"
The Imitation of Christ
the central text of the New Piety; commonly attributed to Thomas a Kempis; among the most influential works of the later Middle Ages; 70 editions printed before 1500
one of the most original of the new foundations; established by Angela Merici; composed of young unmarried girls who remained with their families but lived chaste lives devoted to the instruction of other women; the group met monthly and submitted to the discipline of a superior; rejected the cloistered monastic life and vows; this movement began in northern Italy; spread into France and helped provide women with education and with moral role models
founded by Matteo de Bascio; small community devoted to penance and good works; sought to follow the strictest rule of the life of Saint Francis of Assisi
a potent military power among the Swiss towns; allied with Geneva and helped them beat the Duchy of Savoy in their war; became Protestant under Zwingli
Matteo de Bascio
founded the Capuchins; an Italian peasant; sought to follow the strictest rule of the life of Saint Francis of Assisi; won admiration for his charitable works among the poor and the victims of the plague in the late 1520s and ultimately secured approval for the establishment of a small community devoted to penance and good works
what turned Luther's theology into a movement, which came to be known as this after 1529, was the support he received among German princes and within German cities; entire German towns adopted these ideas; the attack on the worship of saints removed female images from religion - male dominated in a way that Catholicism was not; the emphasis upon reading the Bible tended to reinforce the image of women as weak and sinful; the dissolution of the convents took away from women the one institution that valued their gender and allowed them to pursue a spiritual life outside marriage; good for noblewomen and other women because of education and centering on family life; grows because of the German princes who want to defy the Catholic Church and gain power
Mirror of the Sinful Soul
written by Marguerite of Navarre; devotional poem that inspired women reformers and was translated into English by Elizabeth I
it is bad to marry within close family relationships because its leads to genetic problems (because the gene pool is so small that the recessive traits are passed on); this is a very common problem among the royal family; the blood does not clot, so even a simple cut could cause a person to bleed to death
Christian III
of Denmark; had been present at the Diet of Worms when Luther made his famous reply to Charles V; deeply impressed by Luther, and after a ruinous civil war, he confiscated the property of the Catholic Church in Denmark and created a reformed religion under Luther's direct supervision
Twelve Articles
Program of social change known as this that happened in Swabia; complained of traditional feudal grievances (disputes over the boundaries of forests, the use of common meadows, rights of hunting, fishing, and foraging) - they were justified through an appeal to the Bible and the common obligations that Christians held toward one another; the first of this was that each community be allowed to choose its own pastor, the last that if any of the article be incompatible with the Word of God then they will abandon them; in many places, they formed the basis of negotiation over tithes and feudal dues; in some places, these were nothing other than a symbol for the bitter class warfare between lords and tenants that had flared intermittently for decades; shows that the people do not have to do what the Catholic Church tells them to do
study groups
proliferated, especially in urban areas, so that the literate could read and learn the Bible together
The New Testament
printed in double columns, with the Greek texts on one side and the Vulgate on the other in the Polyglot Bible
topped the list of classical authors that were printed in the 16th century
Philip II of Spain
Mary's first cousin once-removed; married Mary, but they had no children; after Mary dies he proposes to Elizabeth I in order to create an alliance with England and to ensure that a Catholic will rule in England; Elizabeth says "not now" because of the scriptural prohibition against marrying the spouse of a sibling, and because her children would become Catholic; she does not reject his proposal because she does not want to start a war with Spain
Index of Prohibited books
a list of books that the Catholic Church does not approve of; the Catholic Church says that good Christians should not read this; Protestant and Scientific books were placed here; the Vatican II did away with this in the 1950s
Swiss Reformed Church
discipline was the central concern; structured by Calvin; divided into 4 parts: pastors, doctors, deacons, elders; soon became the basis for reform throughout the Continent; was self-governing, independent of the state, and therefore capable of surviving and even flourishing in a hostile environment; the church that Calvin establishes in Geneva; the language depends on which area you are in Switzerland
Johann Tetzel
Dominican friar; hired by Prince Albert of Brandenburg to preach the benefits of the indulgence to help finance the rebuilding of Saint Peter's Basilica in Germany; offered little warning about the theological niceties of indulgences to those who paid to mitigate their own sins or alleviate the suffering of their ancestors whose souls resided in purgatory; even before Luther, there was growing concern among clergy and theologians about this man's blatant sale of indulgences; hordes of purchasers believed that they were buying unconditional remission of sin
Church of England (Anglican Church)
established by Henry VIII; under Elizabeth's reign, this church adopted the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and the simplification of the structured of the church; under Henry VIII: adopts Lutheran practices and ideas, but the Church service is still done in Latin; under Edward VI: Church service is in English and becomes more Protestant, clergy can marry
Muhammad, Newton, Jesus, Buddha, Confucius
in the 1980s a man wrote a book of the 100 most influential people in the world; these were the top 5; 4 out of the top 5 were from the ancient world; Michael H. Hart wrote this; it was reprinted in 1992, where he replaced and removed people
printing press
cause of the spread and result of the spread of ideas - the humanist call for a return to the study of the classics and for the creation of accurate texts aroused scholars and leaders - they wanted more books and faster, which scribes could not do, and so this came about; developed as a result of progress made in a number of allied industries in which paper making and goldsmithing were the most important; the need of scholars and university students for copies of manuscripts led to the development of a trade in bookselling that flourish in almost every university town; the first 40 years after this came about, 20 million books were produced; popularized the discoveries of the New World; contributed to the reproduction of more accurate charts and maps, which furthered the discovery; enhanced the value of ideas and of thinking
the Lord's Supper
Zwingli stressed that mass was to be viewed as a commemorative event rather than one that involved the real presence of Christ and preferred to call it this
New Monarchs
supported the humanists and protected them from their critics
in the 1700s, during the Age of Enlightenment; Diderot got all of his philosopher friends together and they compiled their knowledge in this;
Lutheran-inspired reformers seized control of this Polish port city
reform clergy
many of Luther's earliest students served urban congregations and began to develop doctrines that were adapted to the circumstances of city life (though based on Luther's ideas); they became integrated into the life of the city in a way that the Catholic clergy had not; they married the daughters of citizens, became citizens themselves and trained their children in the guilds
Pilgrimage of Grace
an uprising in the north in 1536; posed the most serious threat to the English Crown since the Wars of the Roses; gentry and common people opposed the dissolution of monasteries and feared for provision for their spiritual needs; they took up arms against the government, marrying economic and political grievances to religious ones; Henry's ability to suppress this owed more to his political power than to the conversion of his governing classes to Protestantism
University of Geneva
established with Calvin's help in 1559; created a ready supply of learned theologians;
large German communities
mostly founded as trading outposts; established across northern Europe; became focal points for the penetration of reformist ideas
Arthur Tudor
Henry VII's first son; the kingdom was passed down to him; married Catherine of Aragon, but died before they had children; Henry VIII was his younger brother
in the 16th century, this was under the dual government of the Duchy of Savoy; had their own town council, which traditionally struggled for power against the bishop; 1530s - the council had gained the upper hand and confiscated Church lands & institutions, secularized the Church's legal powers, forced the bishop & most of his administrators to flee the city; war with Savoy followed and Geneva won because of their alliance with Bern; 1536 - voted to become Protestant; prostitutes were expelled from this town
Ferdinand I
King of Bohemia; saw the council of Trent as an opportunity to bring the Hussites back into the fold; wanted to allow the laity to take communion in both kinds and the clergy to marry
Francis I
determined to root Protestants out of France; burned one of Calvin's close friends for heresy
Huldrych Zwingli
brought reformed religion to Zurich; educated at the University of Basel; deeply influenced by humanist thought; was a preacher among the Swiss mercenary troops that fought for the empire; in 1516 he met Erasmus in Basel and under his influence began a study of the Greek writings of the church fathers and of the New Testament; also influenced by reports of Luther's defiance of the pope; 1519 - was stricken by plague and came to a profoundly personal realization of the power of God's mercy, which became the basis for the reform theology he preached in Zurich; believed that the Church had to recover its earlier purity and to reject the innovations in practices brought in by successive popes and general councils; stressed the equality of believers, sola fide, and the sufficiency of the gospel as authority for church practice; attacked indulgences, penance, clerical celibacy, prayers to the Virgin, statues and images in churches; The Lord's Supper; the town council adopted his arguments as the basis for a reform of the religion; the principles he preached quickly spread into neighboring Swiss states; plea for a simple, unadorned religious practice; believed in a theocracy and an integration of church and state; organized a formal military alliance of the Protestant Swiss towns; stressed the divine origins of civil government and the importance of the magistrate as an agent of christian reform
had been preservered so that the gospel could be propagated; 16th century-served the needs of the state, the aristocracy, and the merchant classes
Thomas a Kempis
wrote the Imitation of Christ
Angela Merici
established the Ursulines in 1535;
translation of Christian texts
the centerpiece of humanist reforms; humanist writers prepared new editions of the books of the Bible and of the writings of the early church fathers by using their skills in Greek and Latin and their information learned by scholars of Hebrew and Aramaic; their favorite method was side-by-side translation
In Praise of Folly
1509; written by Desiderius Erasmus while he was in England; a short satire on the lines of his conversations with Thomas More; extolling what was silly and condemning what was wise; one of the first best-sellers in publishing history; a witty satire on the abuses to be found in the Catholic church; Erasmus wrote it on a lark to be presented to Sir Thomas More, on whose name its Greek title puns
Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples
French Humanist that influenced Francis I to establish the College de France
Protestant towns
secured their own autonomy over the church, tightened their grip upon the institutions of social control and enhanced the social and economic authority of their members; once Protestant, they took over many of the religious houses, often converting them into schools or hostels for the poor; former monks were allowed to enter trades and to become citizens; former nuns were encouraged to marry
World Wide Web
this was originally used militarily; in the 1990s ordinary people started using it; 1996 - one million pages of text; now 180 million websites and 12.4 billion pages of text; 2 years ago there were 2.3 billion pages of text; this affected the world today like the printing press did when it first came out
eternal league of God
an attempt in Thuringia, to form peasants and townsmen into this; called for the abolition of all feudal relations, the destruction of the Catholic church, and the abolition of private property; the union was more apparent than real, as the miners, town dwellers, and rural peasantry had different grievances and different experience
Saint James
the shrine of this apostle is at Compostela in Spain; the shrine of this apostle was believed to cure the ill
here, the Teutonic Knights established a Lutheran form of worship that soon took hold all along the shores of the Baltic
the level of this was high in Germany; especially acute in cities that were suffering economic difficulties because priests did not have to pay taxes
second generation of reformers
the church builders; had to systematize doctrine for a generation that had already accepted religious reform; their challenge was to draw out the logic of reformed ideas and to create enduring structures for reformed churches; the problems they faced were as much institutional as doctrinal; whatever the failings of the Roman Catholic church, it had ready answers to those critical questions
Congregational Church
Calvinist churches in the 13 colonies in America; came from the Pilgrims; Calvinists in America
preached new ideas about religious doctrine and religious practice; at first the ideas took the form of a sustained critique of the Roman Catholic church; some remained within traditional Catholicism while others moved outside and founded new Protestant churches; the new ideas had to be communicated (through printing); needed the printing press to spread their ideas - people spread their ideas with millions of flyers and pamphlets
family life
became the center of faith when salvation was removed from the control of the Church; Luther's marriage led him to a deeper appreciation of the importance of the wife and mother in the family's spirituality; "Next to God's word there is no more precious treasure than holy matrimony"
King's Great Matter
England's first reformation came as a result of this; monasteries were dissolved and a Lutheran service was introduced
Maria of Hungary
trained in humanist principles and participated in humanist literary achievements; sister of Charles V and Ferdinand I; regent of the Netherlands; acted as patron to Hungarian reformers; more humanist than Protestant; Luther dedicated an edition of the Psalms to her, and she read a number of his works; her independent religious views infuriated both of her brothers
a small German town; in 1517 the pope was offering an indulgence to help finance the rebuilding of Saint Peter's Basilica; where the Protestant Reformation began
Swiss towns
of the Holy Roman Empire; proved most fertile for Protestant ideas; here was planted the second generation of reformers, theologians who drew radical new conclusions from Luther's insights
infant baptism
a core doctrine for both Catholics and Protestants; symbolized the acceptance of Christ, and without it eternal salvation was impossible; Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin agreed that this was biblical in origin and all wrote vigorously in its defense; it was a doctrine with practical import; one of the 2 sacraments that remained in reformed religion
Mary Queen of Scots
after Mary Tudor dies, England wants this next closest Catholic Tudor relative to be the monarch; the sister of Henry VIII married into the Scottish royal family and this is their daughter; cousin of Elizabeth I
Ignatius Loyola
(1491-1556) lead one of the most vital movements for religious reform in the 16th century; 13th child of a Spanish noble family; trained for a military life in the service of Castile; 1521 - was one of the garrison defenders when the French besieged Pamplona; a cannonball shattered his leg and he had to spend his time at home; there he read the only books in the castle, a life of Jesus and a history of the saints; his reading inspired him; when he compared the heroic deeds of the saints to his own vainglorious exploits, he decided to give his life over to spirituality - resolved to model his life on the sufferings of the saints about whom he had read; renounced his worldly goods & endured a year-long regimen of physical abstinence & spiritual nourishment in Manresa; during that period of intense concentration he began to have visions, which culminated in a mystical experience in which Jesus called him directly to his service; tormented by his inability to achieve grace through penance; the Imitation of Christ profoundly influenced his conversion; he recorded the techniques he used during this vigil in the Spiritual Exercises; made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem crippled & barefoot; intended to stay there and battle the infidel, but instead returned to Spain and became a priest; was summoned twice to be examined for heresy; 1528 - decided to complete his studies in France; entered the same college that Calvin had left; while in France, he and a small group of his friends formed a brotherhood after they became priests: were devoted to the cure of souls and took personal vows of poverty, chastity, & obedience to the pope; 1540- won the approval of Pope Paul III to establish the Society of Jesus; thought of the world as an all-consuming struggle between the forces of God & Satan; most fundamental innovation was his founding of schools to train recruits for his order
William Tyndale
made the first published English translation of the New Testament in 1525; had to be smuggled into England
German cities
entire towns adopted Lutheranism; had long struggled with the tension of the separate jurisdictions of state and Church; much urban property was owned by the Church and thus exempt from taxation and law enforcement, and the clergy constituted a significant proportion of urban populations; reformed religion stressed the equality of authorities; it was because the cities contained large numbers of priests that Luther's ideas reached them quickly; many of Luther's earliest students served urban congregations and began to develop doctrines that were adapted to the circumstances of city life (though based on Luther's ideas); many of these individual princes turned to Luther's theology because of sincere religious conviction and also for secular reasons: Luther's call for civil rulers to lead their own churches mean that civil rulers could keep their own revenues rather than suffer under the burden of papal exactions; Reformation spread particularly well here;
The Instruction of a Christian Woman
written by Juan Luis Vives; a handbook for women of the elite orders commissioned by Catherine of Aragon
one of the four parts of the Genevan Church; preached the Word to their congregations; were fewer than 10 ___ in Geneva in the early 1540s and fewer than 20 by the time of Calvin's death; made up the top tier of the official church; met with the elders once a week (consistory)
Saint Jerome
the principal compiler of the Vulgate; Desiderius Erasmus studied him and wrote of him
11/11 (Veteran's Day) commemorates this, which was signed at 11:11 pm on 11/11/1918; revenge on Germany by France because Germany had to go sign the treaty at the time that France said to sign it at; signed between the allies of World War I and Germany
of G-d; Martin Luther found that this was not a burden that humans carried, but a gift that G-d bestowed; could not be earned by good works, but was freely given; it was this belief that fortified Luther during his years of struggle with both civil and Church powers
Polish translations of Luther's writings were disseminated here
started by Saint Teresa of Avila - believed that women had to withdraw totally from the world around them in order to achieve true devotion; convents throughout Castile; religious houses for women
Institutes of the Christian Religion
written by Calvin in Basel; a defense of French Protestants against persecution; directed to Francis I, it set out "the whole sum of godliness and whatever it is necessary to know of the doctrine of salvation"; became the most influential work of Protestant theology; begun as an effort to extend Protestantism to France
Latin Bible; first translated by Saint Jerome in the fourth century; used throughout western Christendom; 16th century - 1000 years old
Roman Catholic Church
on the surface, appeared as strong as ever at the end of the 15th century; the growth of universities and the spread of the new learning helped create a better-educated clergy; the printing press helped make instructional manuals for priests and up-to-date service books for congregations widely available; the prosperity of European societies enhanced the prosperity of the Church; successive late medieval popes managed to protect Church interests in the wake of the disintegration of the autonomous power of the Italian city-states; people wanted more from the Church than the Church could possibly give them; humanists condemned visits to the shrines as superstitious; pilgrims demanded that relics be made more accessible; reformers complained of pluralism; the clergy complained that they could not live on the salary of a single office; civic authorities demanded that the established Church take greater responsibility for good works; the pope demanded that civic authorities help pay for them
the peasants here had risen against their landlords in the spring of 1525; seized control of Muhlhausen; the peasant army which numbered more than 10,000 burned monasteries and stormed castles, forcing the capitulation of feudal overlords until only powerful Counts of Mansfeld held out against them; here the Peasants War assumed a Utopian face; inspired by Muntzer and other preachers, an attempt was made to form peasants and townsmen into an enternal league of God
Under the protection of the monarchy, Lutheranism flourished in here, where it remains the dominant religion today; merchants and students carried Luther's ideas here; the importance of political leaders here was crucial
made by Spielberg; said that this movie came from Spielberg's heart; came out in 1981; the LA Catholic archdiocese viewed it negatively because the children were seen as the good guys and the adults and government as the bad guys; sends the message that you can't trust your parents and that you must hide things from them; it is also bad in the eyes of the LA Catholic archdiocese because it depicts the government as bad
established by a group of well-to-do Italian priests who also wanted to lead a more austere devotional existence than was to be found in the traditional orders; accepted a life of extreme poverty, in which even begging was only a last resort; their small house in Rome became a center for intellectual spirituality that nurtured 2 subsequent popes
Dutch Reformed Church
Calvinist church in the Netherlands
Gian Giberti
the most influential reforming bishop; from Verona; believed that a bishop must be a pastor rather than an administrator; after a period of service in Rome, he returned to live in his diocese and made regular visits to all of its parishes; rigorously enforced vows, residency, and the pastoral duties of the clergy; founded almshouses to aid the poor and orphanages to house the homeless; in Verona, he established a printing press, which turned out editions of the central works of Roman Catholicism, especially the writings of Augustine
initially put up the capital needed to cast the stamps, mold the type, and buy the paper for printing; they bound the printed pages and found the markets to distribute them; at first the sales were slow because printed books were considered inferior to handwritten manuscripts and were not necessarily less expensive
All Saints' Day
on this day Frederick III's relics would be opened to view at the Wittenberg Castle and with the harvest done, one of the largest crowds of the year would gather to see them; the night before, Martin Luther posted on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Ninety-five Theses attacking indulgences and their sale
one of the four parts of the Genevan Church; made up the lower tier of the official church; laymen chosen by the congregation to oversee the institutions of social welfare run by the church: hospitals and schools that cared for sick and the poor and instructed the young; selected democratically
English Reformation
there was an English tradition of dissent from the Roman church since the 14th century; anticlericalism was virulent in towns, where citizens refused to pay fees to priests for performing services such as burial; humanist ideas flourished in England - presented new learning & efforts to reform spiritual life; Luther's ideas crossed the Channel with German merchants and English travelers; Luther's attack on ritual and the mass and his emphasis on Scripture and faith echoed the Lollard program and found many recruits in London and the northern port towns; Protestantism grew slowly in England because it had been vigorously repressed; religion was legislated through parliament; properties of the Church were sold to the gentry - the practices found favor with both the legal profession and the landed elites and made Protestantism more palatable among those conservative groups; state repression turned towards Catholics; Catholicism flourished in England, surviving underground
Thirty-nine Articles
(1563) continued the English tradition of compromising points of disputed doctrine and of maintaining traditional practices wherever possible; adopted by parliament to make Anglican Church; passed during Elizabeth's reign
Thomas More
supporter of educating women; raised his daughters to be among the educated elite of England; persecuted because of his Catholic beliefs in England; wrote Utopia as a response to Erasmus's In Praise of Folly
Guillaume Farel
one of Geneva's leading Protestant reformers; implored Calvin to remain in Geneva and declared that God would curse Calvin's retirement unless he agreed to lead Geneva's reformation
Gustav I Vasa
led a successful uprising against the Danes and became king of Sweden; encouraged the spread of Protestant ideas and allowed Petri to continue his Swedish translations of the mass and the Lutheran service;
nothing unusual about posting this; in the Scholastic tradition of disputation, scholars presented prospositions for debate and challenged all comers to argue with them in a public forum
College de France
established by Francis I under the influence of the French humanist Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples
imperial free cities
the center of the printing trade and home to many of the most noted humanists who were initially important in spreading Luther's ideas
Olaus Petri
studied at Wittenberg and returned to preach Lutheran doctrine among the larger German merchant community in Stockholm (Sweden); he was a trained humanist who used both Erasmus's Greek New Testament and Luther's German one to prepare his Swedish translation
wife of Sigismund I of Poland; especially important in eastern reform; an Italian by birth; was a central figure in spreading both Renaissance art and humanist learning in Poland; she became one of the largest landowners in the state and initiated widespread agricultural and economic reforms; her private confessor was one of Poland's leading Protestants
New Piety
Erasmus, Luther, and Zwingli were influenced by this Catholic spiritual movement; started in Germany by the Brethren of the Common Life; The Imitation of Christ was the central text of this; emphasized a simpler personal form of religious practice; a central influence upon Christian humanism; most important thing that brought change to the Catholic Church; helped influence Christian Humanism because they believe in education
Peasants War
in the autumn of 1524, this place was convulsed by peasant revolts; the risings were spontaneous reactions to the increasing burden of imperial taxation, feudal dues & ecclesiastical tithes; never before had revolts occurred with such frequency and never before had they been underpinned by religious enthusiasm; spread and isolated local rebellions became joined together through the adoption of the Twelve Articles; the rising of peasants were co-opted by dispossessed noblemen and impoverished Imperial knights; demobilized mercenaries became the military leaders of peasant bands, which were formed into coordinated military units; the military tide had turned in Frankenhausen, and in the later months, tens of thousands of peasants were killed in revenge
parish livings were sold to the highest bidder to raise money
peasants here in 1525 appealed to Luther for support in their social rebellion; they based some of their most controversial demands, such as the abolition of tithes and labor service on biblical authority; Luther offered them no comfort and instructed the rebels to lay down their arms and await their just rewards in heaven; isolated rebellions against monastic lords led to the calling of a "peasant parliament" and the formulation of the Twelve Articles; these forces grew to almost 12,000 including thousands of hardened mercenaries who posed a threat so impressive that the professional army of this country's League offered them a truce rather than a battle
town where Zwingli and Luther met to see if they could reconcile their differences and combine their views; could not reconcile their differences, if they did, there would have been one united Protestant Church, but because they did not agree with each other, the Protestant Church split into hundreds of denominations
the process of reproduction was slowed by difficulties in obtaining sheep on which the manuscripts were written; took the skins of 300 sheep to produce one Bible; books were expensive partly because of this; replaced by paper
Baptist church
largest Protestant denomination in the United States; now split into North and South;
Saint Teresa of Avila
led the reform of the Carmelites; from an early age she had mystical visions and had entered a convent near her home; her spiritual awakening came when she was 40; she believed that women had to withdraw totally from the world around them in order to achieve true devotion; founded a convent to put her beliefs into practice and began writing devotional tracts such as The Way of Perfection; ultimately granted the right to establish convents throughout Castile; she supervised the organization of 16 religious houses for women; her life became a model of spirituality for Spanish Catholics in the 17th century
where mass was performed; became overburdened by the "arithmetical piety" as there were neither enough priests nor enough altars to supply the demand
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
(1520); Luther called upon the princes to take the reform of religion into their own hands
Good Works
written by Martin Luther; compares the relationship of the husband and wife to that of the Christian and Christ
a French philosopher; got all of his philosopher friends together and they compiled their knowledge together to make the Encyclopedia
Catholic Reformation
the movement within the Catholic Church to fix the problems of Catholicism; takes place before Luther; the New Piety was the most important way to bring change; Catholics felt the same impulses toward a more fulfilling religious life as did Protestants and complained of the same abuses of clerical, state, and papal powers; the Catholic response was to reform the Church from within; the most important indication of the reforming spirit within the Roman church was the foundation of new religious orders in the 16th century - devotion to a spiritual life of sacrifice was the chief characteristic of the lay and clerical orders that had once flourished throughout the Middle Ages; devotionalism was particularly strong in Italy
worked in printing shops; very refine job at the time, like a skilled craftsman; now almost obsolete because of books online
hoped first to keep Charles V off the imperial throne and then to maintain a united front with the German princes against him
Jerry Brown
current governor of California; was the youngest & oldest governor in California; imposed liberal reforms; was elected in 2010, and also served as governor in the 1970s (1974 & 1978); his father (Pap) was also governor but he lost to Reagan when he ran for his 3rd term; was training to be a Jesuit priest, and said that the training was the toughest thing he ever had to do; he felt that he failed at being a Jesuit, and so went to Yale Law School to pursue something easier
Duchy of Savoy
had control of Geneva; owned most of the surrounding rural areas, and the Catholic bishop of the town, who was frequently a Savoy client; lost the war to Geneva
Protestant reformation
a renewed spirituality was seen everywhere - it was expressed in a desire to change the traditional practices and structures of the Roman church; people wanted to have learned and responsible ministers, they wanted to established godly families, godly cities, and godly kingdoms; sometimes took the form of sarcasm and bitter denuciations; sometimes took the form of quiet devotion and pious living; the inspiration for this was based on the Word of God; people wanted to ___ the venal papacy, its money-sucking bishops, the ignorant clergy, & the sacrilegious; wherever people turned, they saw abuses; some priests had concubines (broke the vow of chastity); some clergymen dressed in silk and ate from golden plates (broke the vow of poverty); a cry of hope - came at a moment when people demanded greater spiritual fulfillment and held those whose vocation it was to provide such fulfillment to higher standards of achievement; expectation rather than experience powered the demands for reform; contradiction and paradox dominated this movement;
Italian Humanism
many of the ideas that spread across Europe as a result of the printing revolution originated in this; the revival of classical literature, with its concern for purity in language and eloquence in style; one of the most admired achievements of the Renaissance; this was strong in northern and western Europe; their intellectual interests were in secular subjects, especially in mastering classical languages and in translating classical texts; established techniques for the recovery of accurate texts and had developed principles for compiling the scholarly editions that were distributed because of the printing presses
It is estimated that 140,000 people visited the relics here on one day in 1496
Frederick III (The Wise)
(1463-1525); ruler of Saxony; one of the largest collectors of relics in Europe; at its height, his collection contained 17,000 different items; together, his relics carried remission for sins that would otherwise have taken more than a quarter of a million years in purgatory to be cleansed; banned the sale of Tetzel's indulgences in Saxony because of the competition they offered for his great collection of relics - Saxons flocked to Brandenburg to make their purchases of the indulgences though; constantly intervened on Luther's behalf; protected Luther from being burned at the stake; supported Luther's views and both the emperor and the pope needed his support so they had to listen to what he said; another reason he liked Luther was because he felt threatened by Tetzel's indulgences when his relics had the power to absolve sins as well, so felt that the pope was competition; wanted to replace Charles V as the Holy Roman Emperor, which is another reason he backed up Luther
Ninety-five Theses
written by Martin Luther; posted on the door of the Wittenberg Castle the night before All Saints' Day; they were controversial; focused on the concern than an indulgence without contrition was worthless; immediately translated into German and spread throughout the Holy Roman Empire by humanists who had long criticized practices such as the sale of indulgences as superstitious; prospective buyers became wary, past purchasers became angry; invited people to comment and share their opinions of these controversial topics
John Colet
the greatest educational reformer in England; was dean of Saint Paul's, London's cathedral church
middle orders
Luther's message held great appeal for this in the towns; in the cities, it was the petty burghers, lesser merchants, tradesmen, and artisans who led the reform movements that ultimately gained the approval of city governments; resented the privileges given to priests and members of religious orders who paid no taxes and were exempt from the obligations of citizenship
Juan Luis Vives
wrote The Instruction of a Christian Woman