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What is 1 + 3?
What is the function of the kidneys?
help regulate blood volume.
help control blood pressure.
help control pH.
The location of the kidneys in relationship to the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is referre to as:
All of the following belong to the urinary system EXCEPT the
The functional unit of the kidney is called a
Most glucose molecules are reabsorbed in the
proximal convoluted tubules
Which of the following substances can be eliminated from the blood by tubular secretions?
The structure that connects a kidney to the urinary bladder is the
Urine is expelled from the urinary bladder by
All the following are principle solutes of urine EXCEPT
Which of the following hormones increase reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts?
After urine is produced in the kidney, it leaves the kidney via the:
The structural and functional unit of the kidney is the __________.
Which vessel delivers blood directly to the glomerular capillaries?
Fluid (filtrate) that has moved through the proximal tubule then moves into what part of the nephron?
Descending limb of the loop of Henle
The descending limb of the loop of Henle is highly permeable to __________, but not to __________.
In the juxtaglomerular apparatus, what cells monitor and respond to changes in the osmolarity (or electrolyte concentration) of the filtrate in the tubules?
Macula densa cells
The proximal tubule cells are highly permeable to __________.
water and solutes
The late distal tubule and cortical collecting duct contain two functional types of cells. Which cells change their permeability in response to hormones?
The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is highly permeable to ____________, but not to ____________.
The renal corpuscle consists of two parts, the glomerular capillaries and __________.
Glomerular filtration is a process of bulk flow driven by:
the hydrostatic pressure of blood.
Which of the following pressures favors filtration at the glomerulus?
Blood hydrostatic pressure
In an exercising individual, the afferent arteriole will __________ to avoid excess fluid loss.
If a vasoconstrictor is released as a result of high osmolarity of the filtrate sensed at the macula densa, what happens to GFR?
Low osmolarity (or flow rate) in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle will cause the afferent arterioles to __________.
In periods of extreme stress, the sympathetic nervous system will override autoregulation and cause vasoconstriction of blood vessels. What happens to GFR?
Which of the following is NOT filtered at the glomerular capillaries?
Low osmolarity (or flow rate) of the filtrate sensed at the macula densa will cause what to be released by granular cells?
Of the two pathways for reabsorption, the one that most solutes use is called:
Why does water diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?
The interstitial space has a greater osmolarity.
What increases the osmolarity of the interstitium?
Sodium is transported from the tubular cell into the interstitium.
The active transport of what ion is responsible for reabsorption of most substances in the nephron?
How does glucose move through the luminal membrane into the proximal tubule cell?
Sodium/glucose cotransport carrier
Which of the following choices most closely approximates the percentage of filtrate that is absorbed in the proximal tubule?
The simple squamous cells of the thin descending limb of the loop of Henle are permeable to what?
What do the carrier molecules of simple cuboidal cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle transport?
Two chloride ions, one sodium ion, and one potassium ion.
What happens to the osmolarity of the filtrate as it moves up the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
The opposing flow of filtrate in the ascending and descending limbs of the loop of Henle forms and maintains an osmotic gradient in the medulla, which is essential for what?
The ability to concentrate the urine
Which of the following late distal tubule and collecting duct cells secrete hydrogen ions into the filtrate?
How do high levels of aldosterone increase sodium reabsorption?
By increasing the number of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the basolateral membrane
How does ADH increase water reabsorption?
By inserting water channels in the luminal membrane
In dehydration, what would be the levels of ADH and aldosterone?
Both would be high.
The osmolarity of the filtrate __________ as it flows through the proximal convoluted tubule.
The osmolarity of the filtrate __________ as it flows through the distal convoluted tubule.
In overhydration, what would be the levels of ADH (high, normal or low)?
In dehydration, what would be the level of ADH (high, normal, or low)?
In severe dehydration or blood loss, what would be the level of ADH (high, normal, or low)?
In diabetes insipidus, what would be the level of ADH (high, normal, or low)?
How is Na+ reabsorbed?
Active transport using ATP
Na+ is reabsorbed by active transport using ATP. Most of the energy used for reabsorption is for Na+.
Major calyces are:
large branches of the renal pelvis.
a sacral reflex.
It is also called urination.
The basic functional unit of the kidney is the:
The blood supply to the nephron is the:
The Bowman's capsule and glomerulus make up the:
The most important factor affecting the glomerular filtration rate is:
blood hydrostatic pressure.
When the concentration of ADH increases:
less urine is produced.
Which process results in increased glomerular filtration in response to hormone release?
The renin-angiotensin mechanism results in increased glomerular filtration in response to hormone release.
Which structure is the muscular tube that delivers urine to the bladder?
The ureter is a paired structure in which kidney stones can get trapped.
Which substance would NOT normally be expected in urine?
Normally, proteins are too large to be filtered.
Arrange the following structures in the correct sequence in which urine passes through them to the external environment. (1) ureter, (2) renal pelvis, (3) calyx, (4) urinary bladder, (5) urethra
3, 2, 1, 4, 5
The calyx is first and the urethra is last. The correct sequence is 3, 2, 1, 4, 5.
If the efferent arteriole constricts while the afferent arteriole remains unchanged, the glomerular filtration rate:
If the efferent arteriole constricts while the afferent arteriole remains unchanged, the glomerular filtration rate increases. This will increase glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
The presence of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine can indicate:
untreated diabetes mellitus.
The presence of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine can indicate untreated diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis from diabetes may cause this.
Which of the following statements about the urinary system is INCORRECT?
It carries out the majority of gluconeogenesis in the body.
The renal hilum lies on the ______ surface of the kidney.
The _____________ attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall.
perirenal fat capsule
Renal ptosis would lead to:
hydronephrosis due to urine backup
The renal ___________ is continuous with the ureter.
Which of the following cells in the kidney play a major part in the regulation of body water and Na+ balance?
All of the following are layers of the filtration membrane in the glomerular membrane, except the:
The basement membrane is composed of the fused basal laminae of the fenestrated endothelium and the visceral membrane and is considered part of the filtration membrane in the glomerulus.
The ______________ can contract, changing the total surface are of the capillaries available for filtration in the glomerulus.
All of the following functions are carried out in the renal tubules, except:
All of the following would stimulate the release of renin from granular cells, except
inhibition by the macula densa cells.
The energy needed for secondary active transport is provided by the:
concentration gradient established by Na.
Which of the following is the countercurrent multiplier in the kidney?
The loop of Henle of a juxtamedullary nephron
Urea transport into the medullary collecting duct is enhanced by ________.
Which of the following substances is the standard substance used to measure the GFR?
Which of the following substances is the largest component of urine by weight after water?
Which of the following is NOT associated with primary nocturnal enuresis?
Females over the age of 60 years
Primary nocturnal enuresis usually occurs in children under the age of 6 years.
T/F Juxtamedullary nephrons account for more than 80% of the nephrons.
Cortical nephrons account for 85% of the nephrons.
T/F Reabsorption occurs through the tubule wall and into the peritubular capillaries.
The peritubular capillaries cover the renal tubule.
T/F The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to sodium chloride and actively transports water into the surrounding interstitial fluids.
The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to water and actively transports NaCl into the surrounding interstitial fluids.
T/F The juxtaglomerular apparatus contains both osmoreceptors and mechanoreceptors
The JG apparatus provides for autoregulatory control of the nephron.
T/F The kidneys are located in the lower abdominal cavity at the L5 to S3 region.
The kidneys are located in the superior lumbar region.
T/F The myogenic control mechanism reflects the fact that vascular smooth muscle tends to contract when stretched.
This mechanism helps protect the kidney from high blood pressures.
T/F The renal cortex contains the glomeruli.
The cortex contains 85% of the nephrons.
T/F The thick smooth-muscle layer of the bladder is called the trigone.
The smooth-muscle layer of the bladder is called the detrusor.
T/F The distal tubule is under control of ADH and aldosterone.
These two hormones are responsible for water and sodium reabsorption from the distal tubule.
T/F Blood is carried to the glomerulus via the efferent arteriole.
Blood comes to the glomerulus via the afferent arteriole.
T/F The renal corpuscle is composed of the glomerulus and the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.
T/F Renal clearance tests are conducted to test the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
T/F The macula densa is a chemoreceptor.
The macula densa monitors osmolarity of the tubular fluid.
T/F Blood pressure in the glomerulus is higher than in other capillary beds.
Because an arteriole enters and exits this capillary bed, it has a higher than average pressure.