1 / 22
characterize the patter of physical growth during preschool years
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (22)
5 year olds - use trial and error, non-reversal thinking "not learning by rule but trying till it works"
6 year olds- reversal is easier (not just trial and error, learning by dimension, concepts
Chimps- Trial and error easier, not understanding
Rats= trial and error , non reversal easier
*trained with food reward (operant conditioning, skinner)
Speed of learning, traffic light and ski slopesVariables that influence speed of learning Traffic Signal 2 dimensions: 1.Color 2. position Ski Slopes -trying to figure out which would be advanced and which is beginner by the name of the trail. 2 dimensions 1. # of words 2.type of word if it sounds like it should be one over anotherdescribe the 2 broad brand categories of childhood psychological disorders- internalizing and externalizingExternalized Disorders Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) Out of proportion of what you expect for age Conduct Disorder (CD) continues to show deviant behaviors within groups ex. harm other children and progressively get worse through life (escalate in seriousness) Internalized Disorders School phobia/ social phobia (worries about everything) Separation anxiety disorder (dont like to be separated from mother) Generalized anxiety disorder(overwhelming anxiety in different situation) Obsessive compulsive disorder (Irrational thoughts, repetitive, engage in compulsive behavior) Childhood depression Freud theory says no such thing as child depressions due to id, ego, superego * thought depressions was an anger or form of guilt "need superego" but not the caseKohlberg Study moral development, and what were gilligans criticismMoral development -providing moral dilemmas ex. 5 people in a boat who is gonna have to leave 3 basic stages 1. pre conventional ( being rewarded/punished, if accused on an outcome) 2. Conventional (appeal to authority; "parents told me") 3.Post conventional combination of both Gilligans criticism - the study concentrated on boys and had no females Gilligan sampled females -males were more likely to devleop morals independently whereas females who are more likely to consult a groupErikson's stages of initiative vs Doubt, industry vs Inferiority, and identity vs, role confusionInitiative vs guilt ( 3 to 6 years) question: am i good, or am i bad? wants to complete actions for a purpose guilt is a new emotion might feel guilt for things that isnt logical virtue: purpose Industry Vs Inferiority ( 6 to puberty) question: am i successful or worthless Children are encouraged to do things when they are made to do things and praised for their accomplishments Virtue : skill Identity Vs Role Confusion (puberty to young adulthood) Struggle to become an adult with unique sense of self and role in society. - adolescence provides psychosocial moratorium or time out period to explore identitywhat does the term androgeny meanstereotypical male vs female example nurturing= female construction worker= males Kurt Hummel from Glee is androgenous (boy who acts like a girl)how would you account for sex differences in motor skills before the onset of puberty ?Sex differences in motor skills before the onset of puberty • 6- girls are superior in movement accuracy; boys are superior in forceful, less complex acts. Skipping is possible children can throw with proper weight shift and step • 7- one fotted balancing without looking becomes possible. Children can walk 2 in wide balance beams children can hop and jump accurately into small squares children can execute accurate jumping-jack exercise • 8-children have 12- pound pressure on grip strength the number of games participated in by both sexes is greatest at this age children can engage in alternate rhythmic hopping in a 2-2, 2-3, or 3-3 pattern girls can throw a small ball 40 feet • 9- boys can run 16 and a half feet per second boys can throw a small ball 70 feet • 10 children can judge and intercept pathways of small balls thrown from a distance girls can run 17 feet per second • 11 a standing a standing broad jump of 5 feet is possible for boys and 4 and a half feet for girls.summarize our class discussion of HagenCentral tasks (animal) Incidental ( object) also know as irrelevant all has to do with attentional skills -a 20 year old ism ore attentive than a 7 year old who would do better on the incidentalstages in Ross's theory of attentional development?Ross talked about: over exclusive- infant focuses on one salient aspect over inclusive- children, focusing on unimportant information when children mature they reach: Selective mature attention (check book)- adolescent/ young adultexamples of some form of residual egocentricity of adolescenceElkind theorists Idealism and criticalness argumentativeness indecisiveness apparent hypocrisy self-consciousness imaginary audience, specialness and invulnerability personal fablejames marica's identity statusescrisis/ no crisis= active period of not knowing; coming to terms commitment= making decisions toward identity or not Moratorium= in the process of making decisionwhat is pubtery what is menarchePubtery is a physical change and the process that leads to sexual maturity, or fertility- the avility to reproduce menarche is first menstruation central eventwhat are characteristics of formal operational thoughtPiaget- formal operations of thought A capacity for abstract thought (issues you have not had concrete experience with) A more flexible way to manipulate information usually develops around age 11 Residual Egocentricity- deductive reasoning