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Required Factual Content Periods 1-9
Terms in this set (88)
In colonial Spanish America, legal system by which the Spanish crown attempted to define the status of the Indian population in its American colonies. Realistically just a way to cover up slavery.
Labor system whereby young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years. It was widely employed in the 18th century in the British colonies in North America and elsewhere.
Was an uprising of most of the Pueblo Indians against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, present day New Mexico. The Pueblo killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province.
Is the process of converting anything to more "English" norms.
A European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.
Seven Years' War
A war fought in the middle of the eighteenth century between the German kingdom of Prussia, supported by Britain, and an alliance that included Austria, France, and Russia. Prussia and Britain won, and their victory greatly increased their power. This war also included the French and Indian War on the North American continent.
It ended the thousand-year rule of kings in France and established the nation as a republic. The revolution began in 1789, after King Louis xvi had convened the French parliament to deal with an enormous national debt.
Washington's Farewell Address
The final address by George Washington to his fellow citizens as he was leaving the presidency. He wrote the address in 1796 but never delivered it. Washington discussed the dangers of divisive party politics and warned strongly against permanent alliances between the United States and other countries.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775-76 that inspired people in the Thirteen Colonies to declare and fight for independence from Great Britain
A political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which rebel colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
Declaration of Independence
The fundamental document establishing the United States as a nation, adopted on July 4, 1776.
Articles of Confederation
The original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
A document that embodies the fundamental laws and principles by which the United States is governed.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship.
A law passed in 1787 to regulate the settlement of the Northwest Territory, which eventually was divided into several states of the Middle West.
The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, more commonly known as the Northwest Territory, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States. It is comprised of present-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the eastern part of Minnesota.
If the American republic were to succeed, women must be schooled in virtue so they could teach their children. This idea of an educated woman became known as "republican motherhood."
An advocate of federalism, often referred to an advocate of a federal union between the American colonies after the Revolution and of the adoption of the United States Constitution.
The name used primarily by modern political scientists for the first "Republican Party" (as it called itself at the time), also known as the Jeffersonian Republicans.
An advocate or supporter of democracy.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats. Whigs stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements.
Second Great Awakening
A Protestant revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800 and, after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement.
A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
A term used by historians to describe the expansion of the marketplace that occurred in early nineteenth-century America, prompted mainly by the construction of new roads and canals to connect distant communities together for the first time.
The purchase of the Louisiana Purchase from France for 15 million dollars during the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson that doubled the size of the U.S.
It was an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri late in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted. At the time, the United States contained twenty-two states, evenly divided between slave and free.
The 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
A war fought between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. The United States won the war, encouraged by the feelings of many Americans that the country was accomplishing its manifest destiny of expansion.
The war fought in the United States between northern (Union) and southern (Confederate) states from 1861 to 1865, in which the Confederacy sought to establish itself as a separate nation.
The policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
A person who favors the abolition of a practice or institution, especially capital punishment or (formerly) slavery.
The doctrine that states can set aside federal laws.
Compromise of 1850
A set of laws, passed in the midst of fierce wrangling between groups favoring slavery and groups opposing it in lands gained from the war between Mexico and the U.S. , that attempted to give something to both sides.
Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery or not.
Dred Scott Decision
A controversial ruling made by the Supreme Court in 1857, shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. Dred Scott, a slave, sought to be declared a free man on the basis that he had lived for a time in a "free" territory with his master.
A political party that began in 1854 and is today one of the two major political parties in the United States. Originally, it was composed mainly of northerners from both major parties of the time, the Democrats and the Whigs, with some former Know-Nothings as well.
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He was president during the Civil War and abolished slavery.
Was an executive order issued on January 1, 1863, by President Lincoln freeing slaves in all portions of the United States not then under Union control (that is, within the Confederacy).
The period after the Civil War in which the states formerly part of the Confederacy were brought back into the United States. During Reconstruction, the South was divided into military districts for the supervision of elections to set up new state governments.
Were a wing of the Republican Party organized around an uncompromising opposition to slavery before and during the Civil War and a vigorous campaign to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction.
Ex-Slaves made citizens; U.S. citizenship primary.
Black males are made voters.
An era of rapid economic growth, especially in the North and West. American wages, especially for skilled workers, were much higher than in Europe, which attracted millions of immigrants.
The theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform.
Expenditure on or consumption of luxuries on a lavish scale in an attempt to enhance one's prestige.
A slogan in the history of the American South in the years following the Civil War.
People's (Populist) Party
A third-party movement that sprang up in the 1890s and drew support especially from disgruntled farmers. The Populists were particularly known for advocating the unlimited coinage of silver.
A political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.
An institution in an inner-city area providing educational, recreational, and other social services to the community.
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah.
A tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports.
French for "Let (people) do (as they choose)." It describes a system or point of view that opposes regulation or interference by the government in economic affairs beyond the minimum necessary to allow the free enterprise system to operate according to its own laws.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A U.S. Supreme Court case from 1896 that upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.
Social Gospel Movement
Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada.
A broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.
Spanish American War
A war between Spain and the United States, fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba.
An economic recession that began on October 29, 1929, following the crash of the U.S. stock market. The Great Depression originated in the United States, but quickly spread to Europe and the rest of the world.
A system whereby the government undertakes to protect the health and well-being of its citizens, especially those in financial or social need, by means of grants, pensions, and other benefits. The foundations for the modern welfare state in the US were laid by the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.
A series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term (1933-37) of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The goal of the programs were to take the U.S out of the Great Depression.
A movement that spanned the 1920s. During the time, it was also known as the "New Negro Movement"
Is the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism, used by anti-leftist proponents. In the United States, the First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism.
World War I
A war fought from 1914 to 1918 between the Allies, notably Britain, France, Russia, and Italy (which entered in 1915), (USA joined in 1917) and the Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
The movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 and leader of the Progressive Movement. A Southerner with a PhD in political science, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910.
American Expeditionary Force
Troops sent to Europe by the U.S. Army during World War I.
A policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries.
A major United States naval base in Hawaii that was attacked without warning by the Japanese air force on December 7, 1941, with great loss of American lives and ships.
Japanese American Internment
Putting a person in prison or other kind of detention, generally in wartime. During World War II, the American government put Japanese-Americans in internment camps, fearing they might be loyal to Japan.
A constant nonviolent state of hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States. The cold war began shortly after World War II, with the rapid extension of Soviet influence over eastern Europe and North Korea.
A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
A war fought in the early 1950s between the United Nations, supported by the United States, and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The war began in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea.
Brown v. Board of Education
A landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Military Industrial Complex
The aggregate of a nation's armed forces and the industries that supply their equipment, materials, and armaments.
The war was waged from 1954 to 1975 between communist North Vietnam and noncommunist South Vietnam, two parts of what was once the French colony of Indochina. Vietnamese communists attempted to take over the South, both by invasion from the North and by guerrilla warfare conducted within the South by the Viet Cong.
Civil Rights Act
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States, a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President.
A domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs.
The southern US from California to Florida, noted for resort areas and for the movement of businesses and population into these states from the colder northern states.
A movement in 20th century Protestantism emphasizing the literally interpreted Bible as fundamental to Christian life and teaching.
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American actor and politician. He was the 40th President of the United States, and served as the 33rd Governor of California before his presidency.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 when the party was dissolved.
September 11, 2001
A group of Islamic terrorists, widely believed to be part of the Al Qaeda network, hijacked three commercial airliners in midair, took over the controls, and deliberately crashed them into the Pentagon and the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan.
War on Terrorism
The name given to the actions and other measures taken by the US, Britain, and other countries to destroy international terrorist groups, especially al-Qaeda after the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11th, 2001. The actions taken include the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The unrestricted purchase and sale of goods and services between countries without the imposition of constraints such as tariffs, duties and quotas.
The global communication network that allows almost all computers worldwide to connect and exchange information.
A change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
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