Chapter 33 AP world History
Terms in this set (56)
What events led to the assassination of Indira Gandhi in 1984?
Champion of the poor and defenseless
put down all opposition
. Who was Indira Gandhi? Why did she matter in post-colonial Indian politics?
3rd Prime minister of India
changed agriculture program
led green movement
daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru
Who assassinated Indira Gandhi?
Her own bodyguards-Sikh- separatist movement in India- Gandhi tried to oppress
What were the policies of Indira Gandhi? (pg. 804) What did she successfully accomplish?
Successfully led India in a war against Pakistan and saw the birth of Bangladesh. Preserved the independent judiciary, multiparty competition and free elections
What independent nation was created with the fragmentation of Pakistan
What were problems politicians neglected?
Resources unequally distributed and not enough for everyone, majority of the population was poor
was the one formidable barrier to economic growth in postcolonial Africa?s
Spiraling population increasing
What factors contributed to African population growth in already densely populated areas of Asia and Africa by European colonizers?
Food crops from the new world
introducing railway lines to cut down on famines, and outlawing all means of birth control
end local wars
How would you compare the population growth of Africa to that of Asia?
After independence, population growth eventually decreased in Asia, but numbers have soared in Africa
List the factors of the high birth rate of third world nations
lack of educating people on population growth
need to extend family lineages in Africa
social status symbols attached to men
What has the increase of population in the rural area caused an increase of?
Population growth contributed to a massive migration to urban areas.
What did these cities lack?
expanding industrial sectors able to utilize the arrivals.
to much competition for jobs
slums and beggars
List the problems of rural overpopulation in third world countries
deforestation, depletion of soil, industrial pollution, and inefficient farming techniques
Indira Gandhi was the daughter of whom?
Benazir Bhutto was the daughter of whom?
A domineering Pakistani prime minister who had been toppled by a military coup and executed in the 1970s. Assassinated in 2007
What is religious revivalism?
stresses a literal interpretation of texts sacred to the religion. further erodes women of their rights
What did most emerging nations rely on to finance industrialization?
sale of cash crops and minerals
Why are there limited gains by women in the political sphere
Their second class position. Early marriage and large families are the norm. low education
Which export commodity have some third world nations been able to improve the terms in which they participate in the global economy?
What is meant by the term neocolonialism?
refer to the continued regulation of the third world to economic dependency after decolonization
. List the drawbacks from accepting investment capital from first and second world nations
commitments to buy products of investors, the adoption of Western economic models, required military alliances, and requirements for removal of state subsidies on food and other essentials
Who was Kwame Nkrumah and what was his response to the failure of his program of social reform and economic uplift?
The leader of Ghana's independence movement through rival political parties challenged his iniatives. Nkrumah's response was dictatorial and he crushed his opposition parties by banning rival parties and jailing political leaders
How was the name Ghana proposed for the new nation? Where was the original Ghana kingdom centered?
the name Ghana which Nkrumah himself proposed for the new nation that emerged from the former Gold Coast colony had been taken from an ancient African kingdom
How did Nkrumah's failed economic and political problems lead to his downfall?
His suppression of all opposition and his growing ties to the communist party, coupled with the rapid downfall of the economy, increased the rank of his enemies. overthrown in 1966
Why were military takeovers common in African and Asian governments since decolonization?
the military possesses the monopoly of restoring order. Their occupational conditioning makes soldiers more ready than civilians to use the force at their disposal
Name the countries that have experienced military takeover by its governments
Vietnam, South Africa, Ghana and Nigeria
What was the worst example of military regimes in third world nations?
. List the factors in explaining the frequency of military takeovers in third world nations.
regimentation rendered soldiers more resistant to division by religious and ethnic rivalries, military personal possess technical training civilians do not, the upper class favor military rule, and the military have a monopoly of force essential in restoring order during a time of crisis
Who was Hasan al-Banna?
Founder of the Muslim Brotherhood which was an Egyptian nationalist movement- Islam is not a religion but a way of life-did not believe in secularism-only objective was Allah
What factors did the Muslim Brotherhood embrace (what were they committed to
promotion of trade unions
fundamentalist approach to Islam
What was the Free Officers Movement? What coup toppled the Khedive Farouk from power in 1952?
Military nationalist movement in Egypt, led a coup that seized Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952. The Free Officers Movement toppled Farouk from power
Who was Gamal Abdul Nasser?
emerged as head of the Egyptian government after the 1952 coup. dictatorial powers to carry out reforms -ruled under islam ruled egypt as a state society
What reforms were attempted by the military government of Egypt after 1952?
land reforms, state financed education, limited the amount of land you could own, economic and social reforms, government employment system, middle class held more positions
women held more power
state subsidies to lower food prices
What year was the Egyptian government able to force the British and their French allies of of the Suez Canal?
. What was the Aswan Dam project?
Cornerstone of Nasser's development drive. Interfered with the flow of the Nile. bought with soviet money
Who was Anwar Sadat? How did he alter Egyptian policies established by the military government after 1952 with Israel?
Nasser's successor Anwar Sadat dismantled the state apparatus Nasser created
helped military class gain power
ended confrontation with Israel and Egypt
expelled russians and opened egypt to receive aid from US
1st muslim to go to Jerusalem
In what was has India been similar to Egypt following decolonization?
Who led India in the first decades of independence?
What is India's greatest success?
preservation of civil rights and the largest democracy
What was the Green Revolution?
introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation as a mean of producing higher yields in crops
Who was Ayatollah Khomeini?
religious ruler of Iran following the 1979 Revolution
expelled the Palhlavi shah of Iran
emphasized religious purification
tried to eliminate western contact
Return of Golden Age
Died of Cancer in 1989
What was the Iranian revolutionof 1979 a throwback to?
religious fervor of anticolonial movements led by the Mahdi of the Sudan in the 1880s
How did Khomeini's revolution owe its initial success in seizing power in Iran?
like China, Iran had not been formally colonized by the European powers but rather had been reduced to a sphere of informal influence, divided between GB and Russia
When Khomeini was restored back to power what were his radical changes?
constitutional and leftist parties repressed
own radical religious figures
purged western influences
distanced from atheist, communist countries
What was the Iran- Iraq war fought over in the 1980s?
Saddam Hussein and Iraq tried to annex Iran's oil rich provinces
war over borders
What was the result of the Iran Iraq war?
Iran- aging military equipment and few allies- swallowed up Iranian energies and resources for almost a decade after Khomein came to power
Iraq- had money, oil, and US as ally
What country was the oldest to hold onto its colonies in Africa?
Who dominated South Africa's political power in 1948?
How was apartheid established in South Africa?
Afrikaners-white minority rule- passed thousands of laws to ensure a monopoly
segregation of the races
Why were homelands established by the South African government?
areas in South Africa designated for ethno linguistic groups within the black african population
What methods were used by the South African government to suppress dissect among the black population?
favoritism was shown to some leaders divided opponents of apartheid
arrest of opposition leaders
white minority built police state and used a lot of money for military
spies and police informers capitalized on ethnic divisions
What was the African National Congress? Who was Nelson Mandela?
declared illegal- a black organization within South Africa to end apartheid
African leader imprisoned to end apartheid
1st black prime minister
What was happening in South Africa in the 1980s?
boycotts-economy went down
army weakened with wars in Namibia and Angola
counter veiling forces taken hold
Who was F.W. de Klerk? What was he responsible for ending?
a moderate Afrikaner leader pushed for reforms that dismantled Apartheid and the release of Mandela in 1990
What happened to Nelson Mandela in 1990? What did this signal?
released from prision, signaled that the white majority leaders were ready to negotiate the future of South African politics and society
What happened in the 1994 elections?
African National Congress Party brought to power. Nelson Mandela was elected
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