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Chapter 11 SCMA 350
Terms in this set (72)
What is quality?
"it is an inherent or distinguishing characteristic; a property; having a high degree of excellence"
Features and functionality of quality
"fitness for use"
"conformance to requirements"
Determining which quality standards are important to the project and deciding how these standards will be met.
Evaluating overall project performance regularly to ensure that the project team is meeting the specified quality standards.
Monitoring the activities and results of the project to ensure that the project complies with the quality standards. In addition, the project organization as a whole should use this information to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance and implement new processes and techniques to improve project quality throughout the project organization.
Project quality management focuses on:
1. "The Project's products"
2. "The projects processes"
Projects products examples:
- Business case
- Project plan
- the solution
Project processes examples:
- scope management
PQM(project quality management)
Includes all the necessary work to ensure the project deliverables satisfy their intended purpose.
Planning quality is:
"The first step in project quality management".
- "it also may be performed simultaneously with other aspects of project planning"
-definition: the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance
Who was the most influential thought leader in quality:
W. Edwards Deming
Deming said that:
- Four-part Profound Knowledge System.
- Understanding variation is essential to improving quality
- It is important to understand how companies operate as systems
- Managers need insight in order to accurately predict the future
- Leaders need to understand individual motivations
Deming's profound knowledge system includes:
Interactions occur among parts of a system and parts cannot be managed in isolation.
Managers need to understand common and special causes of variation and then work to reduce both.
Managers need to learn from the past and understand cause-and-effect relationships to predict future behavior
Leaders need to understand what motivates each individual and how different people and groups interact.
Who is the other quality guru besides Deming?
- Introduced the quality trilogy.
- Offered specific guidance regarding how to plan, control, and improve quality.
Joseph Juran's quality trilogy includes:
His version of
1. Quality planning
2. Quality Control
3. Quality Improvement
Joseph Juran's version of quality planning:
Identify all customers and their needs, develop requirements based upon those needs, and develop the methods to satisfy those requirements
Joseph Juran's version of quality control:
Determine what to control, establish measurement systems, establish standards, compare performance to standards, act on differences.
Joseph Juran's version of quality improvement:
Select and support improvement projects, prove causes, select and implement solutions, and maintain control of improved processes
Another quality pioneer is "Clifton":
High quality organizations encourage individuals to develop their strengths.
Another quality pioneer "Crosby":
-quality is meeting requirements, not exceeding them.
-The burden of quality falls on those who do the work.
- Quality costs least when work is done correctly the first time.
- Quality improves more by preventing defects rather than fixing them.
Another quality pioneer " Harrington":
Business processes can be improved using a systematic method.
Another quality leader Ishikawa:
Work to identify and "remove root causes", not just symptoms (fishbone diagram)
Malcolm Baldridge said what about total quality management:
- In 1980s it was evident that "inspection" was not an adequate means of discovering quality problems.
- A common means of describing total quality management may be found in the core values of the malcom baldridge national quality award
- Specific criteria for judging key areas are adjusted every two years to reflect state-of-the-art understanding
Malcolm Baldrige's national quality award key areas and specific criteria:
2. Strategic Planning
3. Customer Focus
4. Measurement, Analysis, and knowledge management
5. Workforce Focus
6. Process management
Leadership's specific criteria:
"Organization governance system"
Strategic Planning specific criteria:
"Deploy strategic objectives and action plans"
Customer Focus Specific Criteria:
"Build customer-focused culture"
Measurement, Analysis, and knowledge management specific criteria:
"Manage information technology"
Workforce focus specific criteria:
"Asses workforce capability and capacity"
Process management specific criteria:
"Designs, managers, and improves key processes"
Results specific criteria:
"Performance levels relative to competitors."
What is the ISO 9001: 2008?
-"ISO 9001" it is the quality management standard"
-"2008" represents the latest revision of the standard.
- it is a quality framework developed in Europe and was developed by the "international organization for standardization"
ISO 9001: 2008 areas and specific responsibilities
1. General"(Document QMS including manual and records)"
2. Management"(Develop and support quality policy and objectives"
3. Resources"(Provide needed infrastructure)"
4. Realization"(Control product design and development, Control monitoring and measuring equipment)"
5. Remedial"(Identify and control nonconforming product and make improvements and take remedial action)"
What does sigma in six sigma stand for?
The sigma stands for standard deviation - which is a statistical term for the amount of variation in data.
What does six sigma quality mean?
That quality problems are measured in parts per million opportunities
Six sigma included:
- The rigor of the statisitics in Six Sigma is not always applicable
-It uses a discplined process DMAIC to plan and manage improvement projects.
"DMAIC" is a continuous circular flow used as a method of implementing continuous improvement.
what is DMAIC used for?
Define, measure, analyze, improve, and control process to plan and manage improvement projects.
What are the four core project quality concepts?
1. Stakeholder satisfaction
2. Process management
3. Fact-Based management
4. Empowered performance
For stakeholder satisfaction make sure to:
- Identify all stakeholders.
Including "External stakeholders"(customers, suppliers, the public) and "Internal stakeholders"(Shareholders and workers at all levels)
Stakeholder satisfaction sayings:
-"measure twice cut once"
-"Meet requirements, but exceed expectations."
-"A smart project manager develops capable customers"
What is a process?
Its a set of interrelated actions actions and activities
When conducting process understanding:
-Use a "supplier-input-process-output-customer"(SIPOC) model to envision the flow
What is the purpose of process control?
The purpose of process control is to able to have confidence that outputs are predictable.
When using fact based management:
-Opinions get in the way
- It is hard to know what data needs to be collected.
-Projects often operate with so much time pressure that decisions need to be made quickly.
What are the four aspects of fact-based management?
1. Understanding variation
2. Deciding what to measure
3. Working correctly with data
4. Using the resulting information appropriately.
Common cause vs Special cause
"Common Cause"-is within the range of what can be expected vs Special Cause-Something unusual is happening
Definition of common cause:
a source of variation that is inherent in a system and predictable. On a control chart, it appears as the part of the random process variation ... [that] would be considered normal or not unusual, and is indicated by a random pattern of points within the control limits
Definition of special cause:
a source of variation that is not inherent in the system, is not predictable, and is intermittent. It can be assigned to a defect.... On a control chart, points outside the control limits, or non-random patterns within the control limits indicate it.
-Only has common events
Has both common and special events.
When deterring what to measure:
-Avoid the extreme of being in a hurry and not measuring anything
-Avoid the extreme of measuring many things just to be sure
-A milestone schedule with acceptance criteria can provide useful measures
-Lessons learned from previous projects may offer useful measures
-The project manager and sponsor agree on what measures will be taken, when, and under what circumstances
-Goal to have capable and willing workers every level and every function within a company
- Corporate leaders develop
-Project sponsors and managers
When doing project quality management:
-Start by understanding what a quality policy is
-How the quality policy governs the actions of the project manager/team
-How the project team will implement quality standards
Quality management plan:
describes how the project management team will implement the performing organization's quality policy.
-Reflects the agreed-upon quality objectives
-Metrics that define exactly what will be measured
-How each objective will be measured
-Includes the target value of each objective.
Quality Assurance is?
Its one way to simultaneously improve quality and manage stakeholder relationships.
Used to determine what methods are being used and whether they are effective.
Is used to improve both quality and productivity.
Perform quality assurance(QA):
the process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used
Process quality control(QC):
the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes
documented direction to perform an activity that can reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks.
documented direction for executing the project work to bring expected future performance of the project work in line with the project management plan.
formally documented identification of a defect in a project component with a recommendation to either repair the defect or replace the component
components or products that have been completed and checked for correctness by the Perform Quality Control process
configuration management system:
a collection of formally documented procedures used to ... identify and document functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service or component; control any changes; record and report each change; and support the audit...to verify conformance to requirements
the approved time phased plan, plus or minus approved project ...changes
READ SLIDES 70-79
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