Idealistic and impractical communities. Who, Rather than seeking to create an ideal government or reform the world, withdrew from the sinful, corrupt world to work their miracles in microcosm, hoping to imitate the elect state of affairs that existed among the Apostles.
Experiments that have values typical of Robert Owen. He believed the experiments should be villages of cooperation in which every resident worked and lived in total equality.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
mental hospitals started at the end of the sixteenth century. began as places for people who had had mental breakdowns - turned into prisons for the insane.