A person ordinarily becomes a candidate for representative or senator by
running in a primary election
Whereas the principal work of a parliament is debate, that of a congress is
representation and action
Contemporary critics of Congress disagree with the Framers' vision of Congress in that the critics
wish to end policy gridlock by making Congress capable of speedily adopting sweeping changes in national policies.
In the twentieth century, the trend in congressional decision-making has been toward
In 1860s, being a congressman was not regarded as a "career" because
the federal government was not very important, travel to Washington, D.C., was difficult, the job did not pay well, Washington was not generally considered a pleasant place to live.
When a state attempted to impose term limits on its own members of Congress
the supreme Court struck down the effort
Political scientist define a "safe" district as one where the incumbent received ____ percent or more of the vote in the previous election
The evidence that the electoral fortunes of members of Congress are shaped by the redrawing of congressional districts is
striking, but anecdotal
Today, few congressional votes feature the so-called "conservative coalition" because
almost all of the conservatives are now in the Republican party
Studies have found correlations between constituency opinion and congressional roll-call votes on bills related to
When voting on matters where constituency interests or opinion are not vitally at stake, members of Congress respond primarily to voting cues provided by
Beginning in the mid-1960s, ________ rose steadily in number, seniority and influence.
The increasingly ideological nature of the House means today's members are more likely to
investigate and denounce each other
An extreme example of party voting was the response to Clinton's 1993 budget plan in which every Republican in the
House and Senate voted against it
The text suggests ____________ are "a growing rival to the parties as a source of policy leadership."
The text suggests that closed rules, proxy voting and strong committee chairmen
made it easier to get things done
The Constitution requires that "all bills for raising revenue shall .
originate in the House of Representatives
In of the House, a stalled bill can be extracted from a committee and brought to the floor by means
a discharge petition
The "Committee of the Whole" refers to
members of the House who happen to be on the floor when a bill is discussed.
The practical advantage of the "Committee of the Whole" is that
it requires a much smaller number of members to hold quorum
The process of "double tracking" allows
members of the Senate to focus on other business during a filibuster.
For years Congress defended the manner in which it exempted itself from many of its own laws by reference to
the separation of powers.
According to the text, most categories of pork spending have _______ in the last ten or fifteen years.
Members are more concerned with
their own constituencies than
they are with the interest of any organized party
The Senate eventually agreed to a constitutional amendment that
changed the manner in which its members were elected
The Supreme Court struck down and effort by a state to
impose term limits on its own members of Congress
In every election from 1968 to 1992, Republicans have gathered a higher percentage of the popular vote than they have
the percentage of seats in the House of Representatives
The senate highlights the fact that the Democratic party is more
deeply divided than the republican party
The votes of Republicans on the four impeachment articles against President Clinton
did not even represent the views of their districts
The Democratic Caucus changed the rules of Congress so that
House chairmen were elected by secret ballot in party caucus
Members of Congress are more likely to deal with one another through staff intermediaries than
Bills which feature the spending of a lot of money tend to move
through Congress slower than others.
Most bills die in committee and they are
often introduced only to get publicity for a member of Congress.
Today, most bills are considered under strict time limits and
no possibility of amendment from the floor.
What the filibuster means in practice is that neither
political party can control the Senate unless it has at least sixty votes
The text suggests that the only way to get rid of congressional "pork"
is to eliminate Congress altogether and replace it with a tightly controlled parliament
an attempt to defat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill
political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically by less than 55 percent of the vote.
the legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or the Senate
the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House or the Senate
a senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking
a vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of republican legislators
an association of congress members created to advance a political ideology or regional, ethnic, or economic interest
permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area
a joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill
an expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body
an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate but not the president
a formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president; constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president.
one party controls the white house and another party controls one or both houses of congress
"hidden" congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several important committees
a congressional process by which a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting
a device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for 30 days, may petition to have it brought to the floor
an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor.
an order form the House Rules committee that permits certain kind of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the floor.
a roll call in either house of Congress to see whether the minimum number of representatives required to conduct business is present
a procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business
a congressional voting procedure in which members shout "yea" in approval or "nay" in disapproval, permitting members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills
a congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, the "yeas" first and the "nays" second
a congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering "yea" or "nay" to their names
legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return
the ability of members to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage
Senators were not elected by voters till the ____ and were chosen by _____
20th century; state legislators
Speaker of the House
leader of majority party; presides over House. Decided who to recognize to speak on the floor, rules of germaneness of motions, decided which committee bills go to, appoints members of special and select committees, has patronage power
Subcommittee "bill of rights" of 1970
opened more meetings to the public, allowed TV coverage of meetings, effort to reduce number of committees in 1995-1996