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A person ordinarily becomes a candidate for representative or senator by

running in a primary election

Whereas the principal work of a parliament is debate, that of a congress is

representation and action

Contemporary critics of Congress disagree with the Framers' vision of Congress in that the critics

wish to end policy gridlock by making Congress capable of speedily adopting sweeping changes in national policies.

In the twentieth century, the trend in congressional decision-making has been toward


Until 1913 senators were

picked by state legislatures

Which amendment changed the manner in which U.S. Senators are selected?


Originally, filibusterers were sixteenth century


The typical representative or senator is

white, male, Protestant lawyer

In 1994, Native American Ben Nighthorse Campbell

was elected to the Senate

In 1860s, being a congressman was not regarded as a "career" because

the federal government was not very important, travel to Washington, D.C., was difficult, the job did not pay well, Washington was not generally considered a pleasant place to live.

Serving in Congress became a career by the


When a state attempted to impose term limits on its own members of Congress

the supreme Court struck down the effort

Political scientist define a "safe" district as one where the incumbent received ____ percent or more of the vote in the previous election


A new Congress convenes every ___ years


The evidence that the electoral fortunes of members of Congress are shaped by the redrawing of congressional districts is

striking, but anecdotal

Today, few congressional votes feature the so-called "conservative coalition" because

almost all of the conservatives are now in the Republican party

Studies have found correlations between constituency opinion and congressional roll-call votes on bills related to

civil rights

When voting on matters where constituency interests or opinion are not vitally at stake, members of Congress respond primarily to voting cues provided by

their colleagues

During the 1950s and 1960s, the Senate was dominated by

southern senators

Beginning in the mid-1960s, ________ rose steadily in number, seniority and influence.

liberal senators

Beginning in the late 1970s, ________ began to regain seats in the Senate.

conservative Republicans

The increasingly ideological nature of the House means today's members are more likely to

investigate and denounce each other

The real leadership in the Senate rests with the

majority leader

the House, the most important position is the


recent years, the Senate has become more hospitable to


An extreme example of party voting was the response to Clinton's 1993 budget plan in which every Republican in the

House and Senate voted against it

The text suggests ____________ are "a growing rival to the parties as a source of policy leadership."

congressional caucuses

The most important organizational feature of Congress is the

committee structure

member of the House usually serves on ___ standing committees.


The text suggests that closed rules, proxy voting and strong committee chairmen

made it easier to get things done

Which of the following is signed by the president and has the force of law?

joint resolution

Which of the following is required in order to propose a constitutional amendment?

joint resolution

The Constitution requires that "all bills for raising revenue shall .

originate in the House of Representatives

In of the House, a stalled bill can be extracted from a committee and brought to the floor by means

a discharge petition

The "Committee of the Whole" refers to

members of the House who happen to be on the floor when a bill is discussed.

The practical advantage of the "Committee of the Whole" is that

it requires a much smaller number of members to hold quorum

recent years, the filibuster has occurred more frequently because

it is easier to stage one

Bills which contain a large number of "riders" are known as "__________ bills."

Christmas Tree

The process of "double tracking" allows

members of the Senate to focus on other business during a filibuster.

For years Congress defended the manner in which it exempted itself from many of its own laws by reference to

the separation of powers.

According to the text, most categories of pork spending have _______ in the last ten or fifteen years.


Congress derives from a Latin term that means

"a coming together"

The critical decision for a member of parliament is

whether or not to support the government

Political parties cannot discipline members of Congress who

fail to support the party leadership

Members of the British House of Commons are poorly paid and

have no offices of their own

Members are more concerned with
their own constituencies than

they are with the interest of any organized party

Congress was designed by the Founders in ways that almost made it

slow moving and unpopular

The House has how many members?


By the end of the 19th century, the House was known as the

"Millionaires' Club"

The Senate eventually agreed to a constitutional amendment that

changed the manner in which its members were elected

The tradition of unlimited debate remains

strong in the senate

Congress has become less

male and white

Serving in Congress had become a career by

the 1950s

The Supreme Court struck down and effort by a state to

impose term limits on its own members of Congress

Senators are more likely to lose bids for reelection

than members of the House

In every election from 1968 to 1992, Republicans have gathered a higher percentage of the popular vote than they have

the percentage of seats in the House of Representatives

Democrats tend to do exceptionally well in

low-turnout districts

Studies suggest the incumbency advantage is worth about

6 to 8 points in an election day

During the 1980's, about 40 members of Congress were charged with


The conservative coalition consisted of

republicans and southern democrats

A members final vote on a bill may

conceal as much as it reveals

Senators are often less in tune with

public opinion than members of the House

The senate highlights the fact that the Democratic party is more

deeply divided than the republican party

Congress has become and increasingly

ideological organization

The votes of Republicans on the four impeachment articles against President Clinton

did not even represent the views of their districts

Most congressional districts are

not competitive

Members of the majority party could, in theory, occupy

all of the seats on all of the committees

The Democratic Caucus changed the rules of Congress so that

House chairmen were elected by secret ballot in party caucus

Republicans in Congress also implemented term limits for

committee chairmen

In 1995, Republicans _____ the number of committees in Congress.


Members of Congress are more likely to deal with one another through staff intermediaries than


Bills which feature the spending of a lot of money tend to move

through Congress slower than others.

Pending legislation does not carry over from

one Congress to the next

Most bills die in committee and they are

often introduced only to get publicity for a member of Congress.

Today, most bills are considered under strict time limits and

no possibility of amendment from the floor.

What the filibuster means in practice is that neither

political party can control the Senate unless it has at least sixty votes

Conferences tend to report bills that

favor the Senate version

In most instances, the conference report on a bill is accepted by the

respective chambers

The text suggests that the only way to get rid of congressional "pork"

is to eliminate Congress altogether and replace it with a tightly controlled parliament

bicameral legislature

a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts


an attempt to defat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill

marginal districts

political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically by less than 55 percent of the vote.

safe districts

districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55 percent or more

conservative coalition

An alliance between Republican and conservative Democrats

majority leader

the legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or the Senate

minority leader

the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House or the Senate


a senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking

party polarization

a vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of republican legislators


an association of congress members created to advance a political ideology or regional, ethnic, or economic interest

standing committees

permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area

select committees

congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose

joint committees

committees on which both senators and representatives serve

conference committees

a joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill

public bill

a legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern

private bill

a legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters

simple resolution

an expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body

concurrent resolution

an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate but not the president

joint resolution

a formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president; constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president.

divided government

one party controls the white house and another party controls one or both houses of congress

unified government

the same party controls the White House and both houses of congress


"hidden" congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees

multiple referral

a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several important committees

sequential referral

a congressional process by which a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting

discharge petition

a device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for 30 days, may petition to have it brought to the floor

closed rule

an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor.

open rule

an order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor

restrictive rule

an order form the House Rules committee that permits certain kind of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the floor.


the minimum number of members who must be present for business to be conducted in Congress

quorum call

a roll call in either house of Congress to see whether the minimum number of representatives required to conduct business is present

cloture rule

a rule used by the Senate to end or limit debate


a procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business

voice vote

a congressional voting procedure in which members shout "yea" in approval or "nay" in disapproval, permitting members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills

division vote

a congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted

teller vote

a congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, the "yeas" first and the "nays" second

roll-call vote

a congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering "yea" or "nay" to their names

pork-barrel legislation

legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return

franking privilege

the ability of members to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage

Senate has how many members


Parliamentary candidates are selected by

the party

Vote is for the man or woman not the


Centralization is needed

for quick and decisive action

Decentralization is needed if

congressional constituency interests are to be dominant

Senators were not elected by voters till the ____ and were chosen by _____

20th century; state legislators

Filibuster was restricted by

Rule 22-through tradition of unlimited debate remains

organizational view

assumes members of Congress vote to please colleagues. ex.) Party, Ideology.

attitudinal view

assumes that ideology affects a legislator's vote

Members of congress are more

ideological and more polarized than voters

Democrats are more


Republicans are more


Speaker of the House

leader of majority party; presides over House. Decided who to recognize to speak on the floor, rules of germaneness of motions, decided which committee bills go to, appoints members of special and select committees, has patronage power

_____ did not reflect public opinion


Congressional Democrats and Republicans are more sharply divided on



rapid growth; about 290 today

legislative committee

most important organizational feature of Congress

Subcommittee "bill of rights" of 1970

opened more meetings to the public, allowed TV coverage of meetings, effort to reduce number of committees in 1995-1996

Staff Agencies


Bill is

introduced in Congress, hopper in House, recognized in Senate

Bill is referred to a committee for consideration by either

Speaker or presiding officer

Revenue bills must

originate in the House

Most bills die in


If the bill is not reported out,

the House can use the discharge petition

If the bill is not reported out the Senate

can pass a discharge motion

1995 Act

Created the Office of Compliance, Established and employee grievance procedure, Obliged Congress to obey eleven major laws

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