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Child Development Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Pruning
elimination of unused cells, allows other cells that are stimulated to strengthen, this is generally a good thing, allows other cells to become more connected
Myelination
forming of the myelin sheath, which forms on the axon, wrapping around it, allows for better transformation of information, makes connections faster and more efficient, makes motor movements more fluid and graceful.
Cerebellum
where myelination occurs. here is where movement is felt with. unconscious part of the brain.
Corpus callosum
lots of wiring takes place here for children, this is between the two hemispheres of the brain. connects the two hemispheres, helps with labeling things
Temporal Lobe
Where the hippocampus is located
Hippocampus
deals with the storage of episodic memories. Wired when you are two years old, this is why you have infantile amnesia.
Two years
Need 13 hours of sleep at this age, naps included
Six years
Need 11 hours of sleep at this age, evenings only
Nightmares
Likely to remember these, occur towards morning, likely to not fall back asleep, can be linked to stress if they have a lot
Night Terrors
More intense, occur in the middle of the night, more emotionally intense, less likely to wake up, occur during deep sleep, can be potentially linked to stress
Somnambulism
Sleep walking
Bed-wetting
Try to allow them time to go to the bathroom before bed time to prevent this
Stance
How they hold material for viewing
Problems with vision
Relying on other senses more than vision
Squinting
Headaches
Academic problems
Squinting
Delays in motor development
Gross Motor Development
Stiff legged run -> Run
Galloping, skipping
Throwing arms -> Throwing entire body
Catching with arms - >Catching with entire body
Pumping legs while swinging
Fine Motor Movement
Drawing - Rhonda Kellogg
Unintentional
First start drawing, scribbles are like this, children make up stories after the drawing.
Geometric
Second stage in drawing, Drawings are a window into what children find interesting
Pictorial
Third stage in drawing, drawing also becomes more intentional
Gender differences
Males - better at gross
Females - better at fine
Nutrition
Varied diets
Sporadic eating
Dont force them to eat
Teach them to listen to their eating cues
Asthma
number one chronic illness
Accidents and Injuries
Number of cause of death
Lead exposure
Children are exposed to this through paint chips a lot
Enuresis
Unable to control bladder, can occur at any time, likely to occur as child gets older. Causes: UTI, stress, rigid potty training
Encopresis
Constipation and soiling, Problems with dedication. Causes: Stress, molestation and not having a correct diet
Preoperational Stage
Piaget's stage for this time period
has two substages
Symbolic Functions
2 - 4 years.
First substage of Pre Operational Stage
Child is egocentric and engages in symbolic play
Three Mountain Task - if pass, move on to next substage
Symbolic Play
Use an object to represent something else, imaginary play
Egocentric
non-derogatory way of saying child is unable to take someone else's perspective.
Three Mountain Task
How Piaget assessed egocentrism in children. If the child could only describe what they see, they are still in the Symbolic Functions sausage. If they can describe what others see, they move on to Intuitive Thought
Intuitive Thought
4 - 7 Years
Second Substage of Pre Operational Stage
Reason based on experiences
Moved on if you passed the conservation task
Conservation Task
Task with three beakers, two same size, one taller and skinnier. Water is poured from one short beaker in the taller one and the child believes the taller beaker has more water than before even though there is the same amount of water.

If they do pass this, they move on to the next stage
Contraction
Idea that we focus on an element of the task and we cannot focus on anything else.
Irreversibility
Idea that the child cannot undo something mentally that has been done physically, like imaging that C being poured back into B
Social Constructivist Approach
Vygotsky's approach
Kids build their knowledge
Big activist of peer tutoring
Zone of Proximal Development
Dynamic, Interactions with others, when you're in the right area, you can learn, Scaffolding, help build with knowledge
Attention
This increases, selective of this in this time period
MEmory
This increases, can hold up to three things
Long timer increased as well
Scripted Knowledge
example order of people walking down the isle at a wedding
Can build upon this as well
Wellman
Theories of the mind
2 years - aware of others desires
3 years - think, believe, remember forget
4 years - otherwise will act upon mental beliefs even if they are wrong
Fast Mapping
learning vocabulary quickly, linking word and definition
Whole object assumption
new term = whole object vs just a segment of that object
Contrast assumption
new term = unfamiliar object vs another term for known object
Overgeneralization Error
Apply rules to irregular forms
WUG test
Testing overgeneralization error
Phonics
Sounds, rote practice, can be very boring
Whole Language Approach
Immersed in reading, sight words, sometimes leads students to become bad spellers
Child Centered Kindergarten
Focused on social, cognitive and physical development
Montessori Approach
Child-directed curriculum
Developmentally appropriate practice
hands on learning, faster social development
Head start
Zigler
Allowed students to gain skills to be ready for school
Concrete features
How would child generally describe themselves
Authoritative
HIGH responsive
HIGH demands
Outcome Authoritative
Self reliant child with strong social skills, high self-esteem academically oriented
Permissive indulgent
HIGH responsive
LOW demands
Outcome Permissive Indulgent
poor social skills, high self-confidence, lack social skills because they were always dominate in conversations, very impulsive
Authoritarian
LOW responsive
HIGH demands
Outcome Authoritarian
poor communication skills and low confidence levels since they were never encourgared to have dialoufes
Permissive Indifferent
LOW responsive
LOW demands
Outcome Permissive indifferent
Low self esteem, lowest of all groups, poor communication skills, poor social skills, isolated, trouble with law
2 - 3 years
Average sibling spacing
Oldest
Over represented in government jobs, academically oriented, over represented in asylums
Middle
Know less about them since their positions move, tend to have strong social skills.
youngest
Tend to be more dependent upon others by asking for help
Only
Tend to have anxiety, good academic skills.
Twins
Tried to study nature-nurture
7 years
Median length of marriage
Initial findings
Divorce very negative and stressful in kids
More recent findings
divorce didn't have all the negative effects, it was the conflict. if divorce solved the conflict, then kids were not as unhappy.
Early Childhood
At what age is divorce most difficult
Women
Who is remarriage most difficult for?
Peers
Children of the same age, more generally people of similar background and social standing
Solitary play
play that is independent from that of nearby children and in which no effort is made to approach other children
Onlooker play
okay during which children observe other children at play but do not enter into their play themselves
Parallel Play
play in which children use toys similar to those of nearby children but approach their toys in their own ways. No effort is made to interact with others.
Associative play
play with other children in which toys are shared but there is no common goal or division of labor
Cooperative play
organized play in which children cooperate to meet common goals. there is a division of labor, and children take on specific roles as group members
Social Play
play in which children interact with and are influence by the play of others. Examples include parallel, associate and cooperative play.
Dramatic play
Catherine Gravey came up with this - play in which children enact social roles; made possible by the attainment of symbolic thought. A form of pretend play
Bandura's Bobo doll
Study showed powerful influences of televised aggression
Disinhibited
to stimulate a response that has been suppressed by showing a model engaging that response without aversive consequences
Observational Learning
children learn from observation
Prosocial behavior
behavior intended to benefit another without expectation of reward
Sympathy
more superficial, you don't know how the person is feeling first hand
Empathy
a deeper feeling, you know how the person is feeling first hand
Development of aggression
Genetics, testosterone, temperament, TBIs, ability to understand motive and intentions of others
Gender Identity
knowledge that one is female or male
Androgenital syndrome
a disorder is which genetic females become masculinized as a result of prenatal exposure to male hormones
Stereotype
a fixed conventional idea about a group
Gender stability
the concept that one's gender is a permanent feature
Gender constancy
the concept that one's gender remains the same despite superficial changes in appearance or behavior
Gender - schema theory
the view that one's knowledge of the gender schema in one's society guides one's assumption of gender-typed preferences and behavior patterns
Psychological androgyny
possession of both stereotypical feminine and masculine traits