elimination of unused cells, allows other cells that are stimulated to strengthen, this is generally a good thing, allows other cells to become more connected
forming of the myelin sheath, which forms on the axon, wrapping around it, allows for better transformation of information, makes connections faster and more efficient, makes motor movements more fluid and graceful.
where myelination occurs. here is where movement is felt with. unconscious part of the brain.
lots of wiring takes place here for children, this is between the two hemispheres of the brain. connects the two hemispheres, helps with labeling things
deals with the storage of episodic memories. Wired when you are two years old, this is why you have infantile amnesia.
Likely to remember these, occur towards morning, likely to not fall back asleep, can be linked to stress if they have a lot
More intense, occur in the middle of the night, more emotionally intense, less likely to wake up, occur during deep sleep, can be potentially linked to stress
Problems with vision
Relying on other senses more than vision
Delays in motor development
Gross Motor Development
Stiff legged run -> Run
Throwing arms -> Throwing entire body
Catching with arms - >Catching with entire body
Pumping legs while swinging
First start drawing, scribbles are like this, children make up stories after the drawing.
Dont force them to eat
Teach them to listen to their eating cues
Unable to control bladder, can occur at any time, likely to occur as child gets older. Causes: UTI, stress, rigid potty training
Constipation and soiling, Problems with dedication. Causes: Stress, molestation and not having a correct diet
2 - 4 years.
First substage of Pre Operational Stage
Child is egocentric and engages in symbolic play
Three Mountain Task - if pass, move on to next substage
Three Mountain Task
How Piaget assessed egocentrism in children. If the child could only describe what they see, they are still in the Symbolic Functions sausage. If they can describe what others see, they move on to Intuitive Thought
4 - 7 Years
Second Substage of Pre Operational Stage
Reason based on experiences
Moved on if you passed the conservation task
Task with three beakers, two same size, one taller and skinnier. Water is poured from one short beaker in the taller one and the child believes the taller beaker has more water than before even though there is the same amount of water.
If they do pass this, they move on to the next stage
Idea that the child cannot undo something mentally that has been done physically, like imaging that C being poured back into B
Social Constructivist Approach
Kids build their knowledge
Big activist of peer tutoring
Zone of Proximal Development
Dynamic, Interactions with others, when you're in the right area, you can learn, Scaffolding, help build with knowledge
example order of people walking down the isle at a wedding
Can build upon this as well
Theories of the mind
2 years - aware of others desires
3 years - think, believe, remember forget
4 years - otherwise will act upon mental beliefs even if they are wrong
Whole Language Approach
Immersed in reading, sight words, sometimes leads students to become bad spellers
Self reliant child with strong social skills, high self-esteem academically oriented
Outcome Permissive Indulgent
poor social skills, high self-confidence, lack social skills because they were always dominate in conversations, very impulsive
poor communication skills and low confidence levels since they were never encourgared to have dialoufes
Outcome Permissive indifferent
Low self esteem, lowest of all groups, poor communication skills, poor social skills, isolated, trouble with law
More recent findings
divorce didn't have all the negative effects, it was the conflict. if divorce solved the conflict, then kids were not as unhappy.
play that is independent from that of nearby children and in which no effort is made to approach other children
okay during which children observe other children at play but do not enter into their play themselves
play in which children use toys similar to those of nearby children but approach their toys in their own ways. No effort is made to interact with others.
play with other children in which toys are shared but there is no common goal or division of labor
organized play in which children cooperate to meet common goals. there is a division of labor, and children take on specific roles as group members
play in which children interact with and are influence by the play of others. Examples include parallel, associate and cooperative play.
Catherine Gravey came up with this - play in which children enact social roles; made possible by the attainment of symbolic thought. A form of pretend play
to stimulate a response that has been suppressed by showing a model engaging that response without aversive consequences
Development of aggression
Genetics, testosterone, temperament, TBIs, ability to understand motive and intentions of others
a disorder is which genetic females become masculinized as a result of prenatal exposure to male hormones
the concept that one's gender remains the same despite superficial changes in appearance or behavior
Gender - schema theory
the view that one's knowledge of the gender schema in one's society guides one's assumption of gender-typed preferences and behavior patterns