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elimination of unused cells, allows other cells that are stimulated to strengthen, this is generally a good thing, allows other cells to become more connected


forming of the myelin sheath, which forms on the axon, wrapping around it, allows for better transformation of information, makes connections faster and more efficient, makes motor movements more fluid and graceful.


where myelination occurs. here is where movement is felt with. unconscious part of the brain.

Corpus callosum

lots of wiring takes place here for children, this is between the two hemispheres of the brain. connects the two hemispheres, helps with labeling things

Temporal Lobe

Where the hippocampus is located


deals with the storage of episodic memories. Wired when you are two years old, this is why you have infantile amnesia.

Two years

Need 13 hours of sleep at this age, naps included

Six years

Need 11 hours of sleep at this age, evenings only


Likely to remember these, occur towards morning, likely to not fall back asleep, can be linked to stress if they have a lot

Night Terrors

More intense, occur in the middle of the night, more emotionally intense, less likely to wake up, occur during deep sleep, can be potentially linked to stress


Sleep walking


Try to allow them time to go to the bathroom before bed time to prevent this


How they hold material for viewing

Problems with vision

Relying on other senses more than vision
Academic problems
Delays in motor development

Gross Motor Development

Stiff legged run -> Run
Galloping, skipping
Throwing arms -> Throwing entire body
Catching with arms - >Catching with entire body
Pumping legs while swinging

Fine Motor Movement

Drawing - Rhonda Kellogg


First start drawing, scribbles are like this, children make up stories after the drawing.


Second stage in drawing, Drawings are a window into what children find interesting


Third stage in drawing, drawing also becomes more intentional

Gender differences

Males - better at gross
Females - better at fine


Varied diets
Sporadic eating
Dont force them to eat
Teach them to listen to their eating cues


number one chronic illness

Accidents and Injuries

Number of cause of death

Lead exposure

Children are exposed to this through paint chips a lot


Unable to control bladder, can occur at any time, likely to occur as child gets older. Causes: UTI, stress, rigid potty training


Constipation and soiling, Problems with dedication. Causes: Stress, molestation and not having a correct diet

Preoperational Stage

Piaget's stage for this time period
has two substages

Symbolic Functions

2 - 4 years.
First substage of Pre Operational Stage
Child is egocentric and engages in symbolic play
Three Mountain Task - if pass, move on to next substage

Symbolic Play

Use an object to represent something else, imaginary play


non-derogatory way of saying child is unable to take someone else's perspective.

Three Mountain Task

How Piaget assessed egocentrism in children. If the child could only describe what they see, they are still in the Symbolic Functions sausage. If they can describe what others see, they move on to Intuitive Thought

Intuitive Thought

4 - 7 Years
Second Substage of Pre Operational Stage
Reason based on experiences
Moved on if you passed the conservation task

Conservation Task

Task with three beakers, two same size, one taller and skinnier. Water is poured from one short beaker in the taller one and the child believes the taller beaker has more water than before even though there is the same amount of water.

If they do pass this, they move on to the next stage


Idea that we focus on an element of the task and we cannot focus on anything else.


Idea that the child cannot undo something mentally that has been done physically, like imaging that C being poured back into B

Social Constructivist Approach

Vygotsky's approach
Kids build their knowledge
Big activist of peer tutoring

Zone of Proximal Development

Dynamic, Interactions with others, when you're in the right area, you can learn, Scaffolding, help build with knowledge


This increases, selective of this in this time period


This increases, can hold up to three things
Long timer increased as well

Scripted Knowledge

example order of people walking down the isle at a wedding
Can build upon this as well


Theories of the mind
2 years - aware of others desires
3 years - think, believe, remember forget
4 years - otherwise will act upon mental beliefs even if they are wrong

Fast Mapping

learning vocabulary quickly, linking word and definition

Whole object assumption

new term = whole object vs just a segment of that object

Contrast assumption

new term = unfamiliar object vs another term for known object

Overgeneralization Error

Apply rules to irregular forms

WUG test

Testing overgeneralization error


Sounds, rote practice, can be very boring

Whole Language Approach

Immersed in reading, sight words, sometimes leads students to become bad spellers

Child Centered Kindergarten

Focused on social, cognitive and physical development

Montessori Approach

Child-directed curriculum

Developmentally appropriate practice

hands on learning, faster social development

Head start

Allowed students to gain skills to be ready for school

Concrete features

How would child generally describe themselves


HIGH responsive
HIGH demands

Outcome Authoritative

Self reliant child with strong social skills, high self-esteem academically oriented

Permissive indulgent

HIGH responsive
LOW demands

Outcome Permissive Indulgent

poor social skills, high self-confidence, lack social skills because they were always dominate in conversations, very impulsive


LOW responsive
HIGH demands

Outcome Authoritarian

poor communication skills and low confidence levels since they were never encourgared to have dialoufes

Permissive Indifferent

LOW responsive
LOW demands

Outcome Permissive indifferent

Low self esteem, lowest of all groups, poor communication skills, poor social skills, isolated, trouble with law

2 - 3 years

Average sibling spacing


Over represented in government jobs, academically oriented, over represented in asylums


Know less about them since their positions move, tend to have strong social skills.


Tend to be more dependent upon others by asking for help


Tend to have anxiety, good academic skills.


Tried to study nature-nurture

7 years

Median length of marriage

Initial findings

Divorce very negative and stressful in kids

More recent findings

divorce didn't have all the negative effects, it was the conflict. if divorce solved the conflict, then kids were not as unhappy.

Early Childhood

At what age is divorce most difficult


Who is remarriage most difficult for?


Children of the same age, more generally people of similar background and social standing

Solitary play

play that is independent from that of nearby children and in which no effort is made to approach other children

Onlooker play

okay during which children observe other children at play but do not enter into their play themselves

Parallel Play

play in which children use toys similar to those of nearby children but approach their toys in their own ways. No effort is made to interact with others.

Associative play

play with other children in which toys are shared but there is no common goal or division of labor

Cooperative play

organized play in which children cooperate to meet common goals. there is a division of labor, and children take on specific roles as group members

Social Play

play in which children interact with and are influence by the play of others. Examples include parallel, associate and cooperative play.

Dramatic play

Catherine Gravey came up with this - play in which children enact social roles; made possible by the attainment of symbolic thought. A form of pretend play

Bandura's Bobo doll

Study showed powerful influences of televised aggression


to stimulate a response that has been suppressed by showing a model engaging that response without aversive consequences

Observational Learning

children learn from observation

Prosocial behavior

behavior intended to benefit another without expectation of reward


more superficial, you don't know how the person is feeling first hand


a deeper feeling, you know how the person is feeling first hand

Development of aggression

Genetics, testosterone, temperament, TBIs, ability to understand motive and intentions of others

Gender Identity

knowledge that one is female or male

Androgenital syndrome

a disorder is which genetic females become masculinized as a result of prenatal exposure to male hormones


a fixed conventional idea about a group

Gender stability

the concept that one's gender is a permanent feature

Gender constancy

the concept that one's gender remains the same despite superficial changes in appearance or behavior

Gender - schema theory

the view that one's knowledge of the gender schema in one's society guides one's assumption of gender-typed preferences and behavior patterns

Psychological androgyny

possession of both stereotypical feminine and masculine traits

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