Terms in this set (50)
Research on self-perception indicates that most people
more quickly believe flattering descriptions of themselves than unflattering feedback.
Frank refuses to believe that he is addicted to drugs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. He is most clearly demonstrating the defense mechanism of
The social-cognitive perspective is LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
For several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, Mr. Ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. His behavior is most clearly an example of
Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today's new generation as Generation Me because it expresses more
Self-confidence that is easily punctured by criticism is most indicative of
Most psychologists would agree that personality traits
appear to be stable over time.
After an argument with your little brother, you slam the door to your bedroom instead of hitting him. Your action best illustrates which defense mechanism?
Interdependence is to ________ as independence is to ________.
When Cole nervously began teaching his first class, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates
the spotlight effect.
The pleasure principle is to the ________ as the reality principle is to the ________.
Barry is a college freshman who seems more interested in partying with friends than studying, even though he is in danger of failing out of school. Freud would suggest that Barry's focus on present pleasures rather than on future success reveals
an id-dominated person.
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage.
Jill tells her therapist that she is jealous of her best friend's popularity and wants to tell everyone about her friend's negative traits. Jill is afraid her therapist will criticize her for those thoughts, but instead the therapist expresses empathy for Jill's feelings. This Rogerian therapist is offering
unconditional positive regard.
By selective breeding, researchers can produce bold or shy birds. This best illustrates that some personality differences among birds are
In one survey, Americans were more optimistic that they themselves would go to heaven than would either Michael Jordan or Bill Clinton. This best illustrates
Katie was informed by a professional palm reader: "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Katie was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates
the Barnum effect
Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of
Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?
Carl Rogers believed that in order to be a fully-functioning individual, you must
receive unconditional positive regard
Which defense mechanism involves the conscious expression of feelings that are the opposite of unconscious feelings?
People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report experiencing
Free association is a method designed to
explore the unconscious.
An integrated understanding of Tara's consistent cheerfulness in terms of her supportive peer relationships, her calm temperament, and her perceived internal locus of control best illustrates
a biopsychosocial approach
Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of
Which of the following is most likely to be associated with high self-esteem?
Tyson mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile. In fact, Tyson is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Tyson's belief that his classmates are hostile is a
Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
work persistently at difficult tasks.
Evan is so terrified of snakes that he can't go to the zoo for fear of seeing one. Evan can't remember the first time he was afraid of snakes. Evan's inability to recall when his fear began is best explained by which of the following Freudian concepts?
Which of the following is the best definition of the defense mechanism sublimation?
the transformation of unacceptable impulses into socially valued motivations
An interest in describing and classifying the many ways in which individuals may differ from one another is most characteristic of the ________ perspective.
A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
criticize the shortcomings of others.
According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by
The trait of optimism is most closely related to a strong sense of
Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who coined the term
Both Karen Horney and Alfred Adler placed greater emphasis than did Freud on the role of ________ in personality development.
American students are more likely than Japanese students to describe themselves in terms of their
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
Learned helplessness is most likely to promote
Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
In assessing a client's personal growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between
ideal self and actual self.
Jeremiah accepts himself as he is without being strongly affected by how others evaluate him. Jeremiah most clearly demonstrates
Freud suggested that in a healthy person the
ego is stronger than the id and superego.
Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation?
Returning personal favors to those who have shown you kindness is especially likely to be emphasized in cultures characterized by
People who break speed limits tend to think that many others do the same. This best illustrates
the false consensus effect.
Tim is a combat veteran of the Vietnam war. When asked, he says he never went to Vietnam. Tim's psychoanalyst suspects that Tim may have been involved in a traumatic event during the war. Which defense mechanism may Tim's unconscious mind be employing to protect him?
Personality is best defined as an individual's
characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with
an external locus of control.
When people compare their personal qualities with those of the average person, they are most likely to experience
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