12th Grade Poetry Terms

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euphony
A succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose; the opposite of cacophony.

"The mild-eyed melancholy Lotos-eaters came."

vowels and soft vowels
cacophony
harsh, jarring, discordant sound; dissonance

Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" illustrates ___:

With throats unslaked, with black lips baked,

Agape they heard me call.

hard consonants
meter
A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry; the rhythm that is created by the pattern of accents
free verse
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
near rhyme
The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH;
sounds are almost but not exactly alike
perfect rhyme
Rhymes involving sound that are exactly the same (ex: love, dove)
caesura
a short pause within a line of poetry; often but not always signaled by punctuation.
enjambment
A line having no pause or end punctuation but having uninterrupted grammatical meaning continuing into the next line.
consonance
Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity.
assonance
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity
cadence
(n) rhythm; the rise and fall of sounds
simile
A direct comparison made between two unlike things, using a word of comparison such as like, as, than, such as, or resembles.
metaphor
A comparison of two unlike things without using the word like or as.
extended metaphor
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
allusion
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
hyperbole
purposeful exaggeration for effect
litotes
A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.
symbolism
A device in literature where an object represents an idea.
paradox
a contradiction or dilemma
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity.
oxymoron
"...o brawling love, o loving hate, o anything, of nothing first created!" is an example of what?
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.
alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds
onomatopoeia
A word that imitates the sound it represents.
Whirr, thud, sizzle, and hiss are typical examples.
apostrophe
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.
persona
An individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling
speaker
the narrator of a poem; not to be confused with the poet who wrote the poem.
stanza
A group of lines in a poem
fixed rhyme
a rhyme scheme for poem that is consistently used throughout the poem
diction
A speaker or writer's choice of words (formal, informal, colloquial, full of slang, poetic, ornate, plain, abstract, concrete, etc.);
connotative
The ideas or concepts a word suggests in addition to its literal definition
the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
denotative
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
anaphora
Literary device of repetition, in which a word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of a series of lines. (eg Martin Luther King's repetition of the phrase "I have a dream that...")
antithesis
using parallel structure, contrasting ideas; a balancing of two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses.
metonymy
A figure of speech in which a word represents something else which it suggests. For example in a herd of fifty cows the herd might be referred to as fifty head of cattle
1. a figure of speech in which you refer to something by naming something that is proximate to, or habitually associated with, it (e.g., "the White House today announced"
synecdoche
using one part of an object to represent the entire object (for example, referring to a car simply as "wheels")
A rhetorical trope involving a part of an object representing the whole, or the whole of an object representing a part. For instance, a writer might state, "Twenty eyes watched our every move."
polysyndeton
Deliberate use of many conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted. Hemingway and the Bible both use extensively. Ex. "he ran and jumped and laughed for joy"
asyndeton
A rhetorical term for a writing style that omits conjuctions between words, phrases or clauses
refrain
A line or set of lines repeated several times over the course of a poem.
couplet
A pair of rhymed lines that may or may not constitute a separate stanza in a poem.
punctuation
When analyzing poetry, it is important to examine how the stanzas are structured but also how the punctuation is used for an effect.
word order or syntax
the way the poet structures the language with syntax--Does the poet invert the syntax putting the verb before the subject? Does the poet use interesting spacing, indentations, or punctuation in order to create an effect?
parallelism
expresses similar or related ideas in similar grammatical structures
"...for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Protection, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor."
climatic syntax
writer arranges ideas in order of importance from the least to the most important
I spent the day cleaning the house, reading poetry, and putting my life in order.
antithesis
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas
"Our knowledge separates as well as unites; our orders disintegrate as well as bind; our art brings us together and sets us apart."
parenthesis or parenthetical expression
the insertion of words, phrases, or a sentence that is not syntactically related to the rest of the sentence. Such material is set off from the rest of the sentence in one or two ways. Either is acceptable.
By dashes: He said that it was going to rain--I could hardly disagree--before the game was over.
By parentheses: He said that it was going to rain (I could hardly disagree) before the game was over.
motif
a standard theme, ideas, object, element, or dramatic situation that recurs in various times within a work or multiple works.
imagery
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
satire
A literary style used to make fun of or ridicule an idea or human vice or weakness
end stop
Occurs when a line of poetry ends with a period or definite punctuation mark, such as a colon or period.
conceit
a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor
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