68 terms

SOL WHI.2,3,4: Ancient Civilizations

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Homo sapiens
This group emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.
Africa
Homo sapiens migrated to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas from this place.
Hunter-gatherers
People whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals.
Nomads
Term which means to migrate in search of food, water, and shelter
Clans
Small groups which early humans lived in.
Oral language
Developed by early humans & helped increase effective planning of hunting & gathering.
Cave art
first record-keeping.
fire
Developed by early humans and aided in keeping warm, cooking, and protection.
Paleolithic Era
time humans first developed tools and simple weapons, fire, oral language, and cave art.
Agriculture
Developed this during the Neolithic, allowing for settlement into permanent communities
Domestication
developed this which provided a steady food source and a source of labor
Neolithic
Time period when humans developed agriculture, settled communities, domestication of animals, advanced tools, pottery, and weaving skills.
Archaeologists
Studies past culture by locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts.
Radio-carbon dating
Scientific test which analyze fossils and artifacts to find their ages.
Stonehenge
Archaeological site in England that began in the Neolithic & finished in the Bronze Age
Egypt
Civilization located on the Nile River and Delta
Mesopotamia
Civilization located on the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys
India
Civilization located around the Indus Valley
China
Civilization located around the Huang He River Valley
Hebrews
Group settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley
Hebrews
First monotheistic religion followers
Fertile Crescent
Land where Mesopotamia & other early civilization grew up where the soil was very rich
Phoenicians
Settled along the Mediterranean coast and known to be a great trading & seafaring people
Nubia/Kush
Kingdom located on the upper (southern) Nile River in Africa
Dynasty
Hereditary rule created these groups of rulers (one family)
slavery
institution present in ancient civilization; people were subjected to the will of others; accepted in river valley civilizations
Ten Commandments
Early written law code, created by the Hebrews
Hammurabi's Code
First written law code, created by a Babylonian king
Specialization
This happened with labor- people began to develop more individualized skills and jobs
Polytheism
religion which believes in many gods and goddesses
monotheism
religion which believes in only one God
Judaism
religion of the Hebrews
Abraham
founder of Judaism; led Hebrews to Mesopotamia
Jerusalem
Capital city in the kingdom of Israel
Torah
Holy book of the Jews.
Exile
Helped Judaism to spread because Hebrews were forced to leave their homeland
Diaspora
Term which means "spreading out"; helped Judaism spread
pictograms
Earliest written symbols
hieroglyphics
Writing of Egypt
cuneiform
Writing of Sumer (Mesopotamian city-state)
alphabet
writing of the Phoenicians
persians
Group who created a huge empire who were tolerant of those they conquered and who created an imperial bureaucracy and road system
Zoroastrianism
Religion of the Persians
Hindu Kush
Mountain range in the north of India which allowed invaders to enter the civilization
Indo-Aryans
Group which migrated into India, becoming the dominant class
Caste System
Rigid class system instituted by the Aryans which was hereditary (inheritance of class)
Gupta
Empire during the Golden Age of classical Indian culture
Math
Advancements were made in textiles and literature as well as in this field in India
Hinduism
religion of India to which they believed in many forms of one deity
reincarnation
Belief of Hindus; cycles of rebirth
Karma
Belief that future incarnations are based on present behavior
Vedas
one of the sacred writings of Hinduism (starts with V)
Upanishads
one of the sacred writings of Hinduism (starts with U)
Buddhism
religion which declared there were 4 Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
Siddartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism
Asoka
Leader who helped to spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia
Great Wall
built by Qin dynasty leader Shi Huangdi as a line of defense against Northern invasions in China
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism
Mandate of Heaven
Belief that Chinese dynasties were given the right to rule from heaven, but only as long as their rule was just
Silk road
Trade route for trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome
civil system
Contribution of classical China which made jobs in the government based on merit
paper
contribution of classical China which allowed for easier production of the written word
porcelain
Contribution of classical China which is a type of clay that is used to make plates, cups, etc.
silk
contribution of classical China which was a very popular trade good (a textile)
Confucianism
this philosophy helped to form social order in China and was based on the belief that humans are good, not evil, that people should respect their elders, be polite, get an education, and worship or revere their ancestors
daoism
this philosophy helped to form culture and values in China and encouraged humility, living a peaceful life, attaining inner peace, and living in harmony with nature
Yin Yang
this symbol represents the opposites of Confucianism and Taoism
Buddhism
Chinese forms of this religion spread throughout Asia (Originated in India)