The initial effect of a stimulus on a sensory receptor is a local electrical change
specifically called a/an
You can smell the fragrance of your deodorant when you just put it on, but after a little
while the smell fades. What explains this phenomenon?
the phasic nature of the sense of smell
What taste sensation is associated with the taste produced by amino acids such as aspartic
and glutamic acid?
___ is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first
through the thalamus.
Infrasonic frequencies below ___ Hz are not detected by the ear, whereas ultrasonic
frequencies above ___ Hz are inaudible vibrations.
This figure shows the spiral organ (organ of Corti). Which is the structure acting as a transducer?
The structure shown in this figure is located within which of the following structures?
Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the
the auditory (eustachian) tube
Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following the pathway:
tympanic membrane → auditory canal → ossicles → oval window → cochlear duct →
spiral organ → fibers of cochlear nerve
Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?
A. the ossicles
cochlear hair cells
Each upward movement of the _____ causes the stereocilia of the inner hair cells to bend,
opening ___ gates.
basilar membrane; K+
A 100 dB sound (loud) of 150 Hz (low pitch) would cause the
basilar membrane to vibrate vigorously near its distal end.
When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this
movement by means of your
When you travel in an elevator, the ___ senses when the elevator is moving.
hair cells of the otolithic membrane of the macula sacculi
This figure shows a sagittal section of the eye. Which structure does not have a numbered
This figure shows a schematic of the layers of the retinal cells. What does "5" represent?
Glaucoma is a state of elevated pressure within the eye that occurs when the ___ is
obstructed so the ___ is not reabsorbed as fast as it is secreted.
scleral venous sinus; aqueous humor
Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the ___ and exit the eye by way of
the optic nerve.
This figure shows the metabolism of a visual pigment. Which steps represent bleaching?
1, 2, 3, and 4
The fact that cones exhibit less neuronal convergence than rods do is part of the reason
photopic (day) vision has higher resolution than scotopic (night) vision.
The duplicity theory of vision holds that
a single type of receptor system cannot produce both high sensitivity and high resolution.
Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate in the ___ before reaching the visual