The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts _____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.
quickly; quickly; specific
__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology.
This figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. What does "1" represent?
the pineal gland
This figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. Which structure secretes growth hormone (GH or somatotropin)?
The ___ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function.
What makes a cell a target of a particular hormone?
the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secrets
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the
anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis).
The hypophyseal portal system connects
the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus.
These are all hypothalamic hormones except
luteinizing hormone (LH).
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the
___ has more target cells in the body than any of the others.
Growth hormone (GH)
Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via
negative feedback inhibition
The infundibulum is
a projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs.
___ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is
Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Negative feedback inhibition occurs when
thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary.
This figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone stimulates glucocorticoids secretion?
This figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone is not a tropin?
This hormone plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the cycle of daylight and darkness.
The ___ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).
The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness and quickens reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system.
The ___ secrete(s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia
The ___ secrete(s) ___, which promotes Na+ and water retention.
adrenal cortex; aldosterone
The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes
Many hours after a meal, alpha (α) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete
glucagon, which raises blood glucose.
These are all secreted by the pancreas except
somatotropin (growth hormone).
This gland has both endocrine and exocrine function.
___ is not a steroid hormone.
___ is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Absence of iodine in the diet leads to
T4 and T3 are _____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.
monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
___ enters the target cell's nuclei and acts directly on the genes.
This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger.
enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases
Even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of
This figure shows
modulation of target cell sensitivity by down-regulation.
Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies
the synergistic effect.
The resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by
During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. A characteristic of this stage is that
energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism.
promotes breakdown of fat and protein.
The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ___.
the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine
Eicosanoids are derived from
Prostaglandins have all the following roles except
to stop fever and pain.
Aspirin and ibuprofen block
the action of cyclooxygenase.
Diabetes insipidus is caused by
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion.
All these can cause Cushing syndrome except
hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla.
Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause ___ when it begins in adulthood.
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following except
These statements about diabetes mellitus (DM) are correct except
both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to polyuria and dehydration?
hyperglycemia → glucose enters renal tubules → glucose transport maximum exceeded → glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid → osmotic diuresis