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20 terms

Parts of the brain and their functions

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Cerebral Cortex
The outermost layer of the cerebral hemisphere which is composed of gray matter. Cortices are asymmetrical. Both hemispheres are able to analyze sensory data, perform memory functions, learn new information, form thoughts and make decisions.
Left Hemisphere
Sequential Analysis: systematic, logical interpretation of information. Interpretation and production of symbolic information:language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory stored in a language format.
right hemisphere
Holistic Functioning: processing multi-sensory input simultaneously to provide "holistic" picture of one's environment. Visual spatial skills. Holistic functions such as dancing and gymnastics are coordinated by the right hemisphere. Memory is stored in auditory, visual and spatial modalities.
Corpus Collosum
communication between the two hemispheres
Frontal Lobe
Cognition and memory. Prefrontal area: The ability to concentrate and attend, elaboration of thought. The "Gatekeeper"; (judgment, inhibition). Personality and emotional traits. Motor Cortex (Brodman's): voluntary motor activity. Premotor Cortex: storage of motor patterns and voluntary activities. Language: motor speech
Parietal Lobe
processing of sensory input. Body orientation (proprioception)
Occipital Lobe
Primary visual reception and association
Temporal Lobe
Auditory reception and interpretation, expressed behavior, receptive speech, information retrieval
Limbic System
olfactory path ways, biologic rhythms, hypothalamus
Basal Ganglia
Subcortical gray matter nuclei. Processing link between thalamus and motor cortex. Initiation and direction of voluntary movement. Balance (inhibitory), Postural reflexes. Automatic movement
Amygdala
neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotion
hippocampus
a structure in the limbic system linked to memory
thalamus
relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and reward
pituitary gland
master endocrine gland
Reticular formation
helps control arousal
medulla
controls heartbeat and breathing
spinal cord
pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from the brain; controls simple relfexes
cerebellum
coordinates voluntary movement and balance
pons
relays information between the cerebrum and the cerebellum, controls arousal and regulates respiration