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2 kinds of reinforcements

positive and negative

positive reinforcement

involves the presentation of a stimuli after a behavior occurs, increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

example of positive reinforcement

getting a paycheck after going to work

negative reinforcement also called

Avoidance learning

negative reinforcement

removal of a stimuli once a behavior has occured, In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state.

examples of negative reinforcement

daughter losing cell phone privileges after being late to school
chocoate results in the child stopping crying
clicking the seatbelt removes the buzzer
Neg. Reinforcement=removal

difference between reinforcement and puinshment

not whether it is pleasant of unpleasant; it it whether the goal is to increase (reinforcement) or to decrease (punishment) the likelihood of a behavior occurring.

what type of modes works best in addiction treatment settings?

positive reinforcement

founder of operant conditioning theory

BF skinner

avoidance learning also called

negative reinforcement

positive punishments

aka as punishment. , We add an undesirable stimulus to get a behavior to stop
Ex. dog pees on the bathroom floor, owner hits, dog no longer does it

example of positive punishment

avoiding being late for school so that you dont have to serve detention.

negative punishment

following an undesired response by removing a pleasant stimulus

example of negative punishment

husband stops teasing his wife after she gives him the silent treatment

what is shaping

learning procedure that uses reinforcement to guide a response in closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior.

what is a fixed-interval schedule

schedule of reinforcement, i.e. every 45 minutes

Watson's white rat experiment conditioned Little Albert to fear not only rat but other furry, white objects. This is an ex. of

stimulus generalization

gambling and lottery games are example of a reward based on a

variable ratio schedule. Response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses

mowrer's 2 factor learning also called

Avoidance learning

Avoidance learning involves 2 processes:

classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning

avoidance learning is the process

an individual learns a respose to avoid a stressful or unpleasant situation. In other words, the reinforcement is the absence of the punishment.

an example of avoidance learning in humans

the situation when a person avoids a yard where there is a barking dog.
sheilding your eyes in the sunlight

the avoidance response in Mowrers theory is reinforced through

instrumental conditioning

operant conditioning operates on the

environment and is maintained by its consequences

behaviors conditioned via classical conditioning procedures are not maintained by


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