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Unit 4: Political Organization of Space
Terms in this set (82)
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit
an extremely cold continent at the south pole almost entirely below the Antarctic Circle
A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites
The contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries
There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border
A relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. The existence of these may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
An economic system based on private property and free enterprise
Forces that tend to divide a country.
Forces that tend to unite or bind a country together.
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
The expansion and perpetuation of an empire
the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Conference of Berlin (1884)
(1884-1885) regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference
_________ countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. _________ countries usually have less development and are poorer countries
The process of establishing representative and accountable forms of government led by popularly elected officials., A political process, sometimes peaceful but more often violent, that leads to independence
The delegation of legal authority from a central government to lower levels of political organization, such as state or country
The idea that political stabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
EZZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)
Geographic separation between the largely democratic and free market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of eastern Europe and Asia., As established in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles (370km) seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
The different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions
An small and relatively homogeneous group or religion surrounded by another large and different group or religion.
A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
A war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
An internal organization of a state that allocated most powers to units of local government.
Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention
a region where boundaries are very thinly or weakly developed, zones where territoriality is unclear and not well established
the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
the era of sea power was ending and control over land would be the key to power
a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA
an international alliance involving many different countries
an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy
the doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
this region has taken center stage in the realm of international politics, It leads as another great example of irredentism. it holds the debate of a Jewish historical possession and ethnic minority in 1946 versus the historical possession of the Palestinians and their ethnic majoriyt in 1946.
A state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility t and from international trade routes
Law of the Sea
Law of the Sea Law establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
an Asian republic at east end of Mediterranean
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
The system of drawing a political boundary midway between two states' coastlines when the territorial seas or EEZ are narrower than twice the standard or adopted limit.
An imprecise term for a state or territory small in both population and area. An informal definition accepted by the United Nations suggests a maximum of 1 million population combined with a territory of less than 700km2 (270sq mi).
A state or territory that is small in both size and population
Tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
a state with only one nation in its borders
An Arctic territory in northern Canada created in 1999 and governed solely by the Inuit
the process by which districts are moved according to popular shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people.
Focuses on characters, dialect, customs. topography, and other features specific to a certain region
the conflict between relegions
bring together to parts of a country under one government (ex: Germany)
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
The right of a nation to govern itself autonomously.
a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals (e.g., Israel or Kashmir today; Eastern Europe during the Cold War,...)
Supreme or independent political power.
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government is recognized by the international community
Stateless ethnic groups
ethnic groups that share certain cultural, political, and/or historic qualities, such as religion, location, or art, but do not share enough qualities to be recognized as a nationality/nation and have no state(homeland) that is politically recognized as belonging to them.
A group of people with a common political identity who do not have a territoriality defined, sovereign country of their own.
the right to vote
The idea that differing nations can cooperate so closely for their mutual benefit that they can share the same government, economy, social policies, and military.
Any dispute over land ownership.
distance from geometric center is similar (e.g., Germany, Hungary,...)
states that geographically exist in several pieces
states that are long and thin
state that has a piece that protrudes from its core area
have a hole punched in them by another state, like South Africa, which is perforated by Lesotho, a tiny country
A country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
A state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders.
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
created to to establish a comprehensive set of rules governing the oceans and to replace previous U.N. Conventions on the Law of the Sea
A state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
breakup of Soviet Union in 1991, ended communism in much of the world and created 15 republics.
Definitional Boundary Dispute
focuses on the legal language of the treaty for the boundary.
Ex. Native American treaties
Locational Boundary Disputes
is when the definition is not in dispute but the interpretation is.
Ex. Saudi Arabia and Yemen/Oman/UAE
Operational Boundary Disputes
is a dispute of how a boarder should function.
Ex. Iraq and Iran with the Persian Gulf
Allocational Boundary Disputes
occurs over a resource on a boundary between two countries.
Ex. Iraq and Kuwait 1991
Antecedent Boundary Origin
is how the boundary evolves over time.
Ex. Western Europe and Eastern Europe
Subsequent Boundary Origin
a boundary that was created before today's cultural landscape.
Ex. the US/Mexican border
Superimposed Boundary Origin
are created through long term processes.
Relic Boundary Origin
forced on inhabitants to solve a problem or conflict.
Boundary Process (definition)
through a treaty, or legal like document, sets longitude and latitude.
Ex. Germany after world war one with the treaty of Paris
Boundary Process (delimitation)
drawing the boundary on a map.
Ex. Europeans dividing up Africa for themselves
Boundary Process (demarcation)
the boundary using steel posts.
Ex. the US/Mexican border at points with a fence
Natural/Physical Boundary Type
a physical environment is used as a boundary.
Ex. The four corners of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico
Ethnographic/Cultural Boundary Type
is used when cultural difference divides a region and is used as a reference to create a boundary.
Ex. France and Spain with the Pyrenees Mts.
Geometric Boundary Type
a boundary drawn by a grid system.
Ex. Armenia and Azerbaijan
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