Chapter 26- The Urinary System
Terms in this set (80)
A function of the urinary system is to remove ___ from the blood.
A function of the urinary system is to control blood volume and ___.
A function of the urinary system is to regulate ___.
A function of the urinary system is to regulate blood __.
A function of the urinary system is to control __ production.
A function of the urinary system is to control ___ synthesis.
The functional unit of the kidney is called ___.
About 85% of the nephron that contains all components within the cortex is called ___.
About 15% of the nephron that contains the Loop of Henle and extends into the medulla is called ___.
A ___ of the kidney must function to ensure survival.
One of the two things that make up the nephron is called ___ and has fenestrated capillary beds that are the site of filtration.
One of the two things that make up the nephron is called ___ and is the site of reabsorption and secretion.
In the tubular portion of the nephron, ___ is the visceral layer with specialized cells called podocytes.
The ___ contains the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule.
Gaps between podocyte processes surrounding the glomerulus are called ___.
The capillary epithelium, the basement membrane, and the podocytes make up the ___.
The JG cells and the macula densa make up the ___.
___ are modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole that release renin with a decrease of blood pressure which results in the restoration of higher blood pressure.
___ are specialized DCT cells.
renal artery, afferent arteriole, interlobular vein
The blood flow through the kidneys start with the ___ then continue through segmental a-interlobar a- arcuate a- interlobular a- ___- glomerulus- efferent arteriole- peritubular capillaries- ___- arcuate v- interlobar v- renal v- IVC.
The site at which reabsorbed materials reenter the bloodstream is called the ___.
The ___ has specialized parts of the peritubular capillaries that wrap around the Loop of Henle.
___ production involves filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
The movement of materials across the filtration membrane due to pressure differences is called ___.
The movement of materials from filtrate back into the bloodstream is called ___.
The active transport of additional materials into the nephron is called ___.
During ___, high glomerular capillary pressure forces fluid out of the capillaries and into Bowman's capsule creating filtrate.
99% of filtrate is ___.
Filtration is ___.
The formula for glomerular filtration pressure (GFP) is ___.
___ is hydrostatic pressure that forces fluid out of the glomerulus.
___ is caused by fluid already present in Bowman's capsule.
___ is plasma proteins remaining within the glomerulus that draw fluid to them.
When filtrate leaves renal tubules and reenters the bloodstream via peritubular capillaries, it is called ___.
Proteins that leave by endocytosis and removes glucose by active transport are called ___.
Loop of Henle
The ascending limb of the ___ uses active transport.
The active/co-transport of Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+ is called ___.
By the end of PCT, filtrate volume is reduced by ___.
In the Loop of Henle, the descending limb is ___ permeable while the ascending is not.
The descending limb of the Loop of Henle reduces filtrate by __.
H2O permeability is affected by ___.
With ADH, another ___ of filtrate is reabsorbed.
About ___ of filtrate volume is urine volume.
___ can be active or passive transport that moves materials out of the peritubular capillaries into renal tubules.
Humans produce concentrated urine, or ___, due to the ability to maintain high medullary concentration gradient.
countercurrent multiplier system
The ___ concentrates urine by having the blood vessel and the filtrate vessel flow in opposite directions alongside one another.
___ is when fluid flowing in parallel tubes but in opposite directions and materials move from one tube segment to the next.
The vasa recta removes excess H2O/solutes from the interstitial fluid of the ___ without changing the high Osmolity of fluid within the medulla of the kidney.
In the Loop of Henle, H2O is moved out of the ___ and into the vasa recta.
___ diffuses into descending limb of the Loop of Henle from the interstitial fluid and is filtered at the glomerulus.
____ is part of the hormonal regulation of urine production that is stimulated by low blood pressure.
____ is part of the hormonal regulation of urine production that is stimulated by an increase of K+ and angiotensin II.
____ is part of the hormonal regulation of urine production that is produced with high osmolity and decreases blood volume and blood pressure.
____ is part of the hormonal regulation of urine production that is produced by the right atrium in response to high blood pressure and inhibits ADH secretion.
The maintenance of stable glomerular filtration rate is called ___.
___ is the SNS stimulation that contricts afferent arterioles.
___ increase urine volume and therefore decreases blood volume and blood pressure.
K sparing diuretics
___ are diuretics that prevent excessive K+ loss.
___, or EtOH, decreases ADH as well as Na/Cl reaborption
The replacement of the function of nephrons is called ___ and it doesn't occur naturally.
Kidney stones, or ____, contain Ca salts and are deposited within the renal pelvis.
___ is the process of kidney stones shattering and then passed.
The elimination of fluid from the bladder is called ___.
As water and solutes are reabsorbed from the filtrate, the relative concentration of the filtrate __.
Solutes that are secreted are added to the existing filtrate. (T/F)
The juxtaglomerular cells release ___ in response to low blood pressure
__ drains glomerular filtrate.
__ stores urine.
Loop of Henle
___: due to countercurrent flow concentrates filtrate (urine).
__ drains the distal collecting duct (DCT).
__ is where collecting ducts of all nephrons are located.
__ drains renal pelvis.
__ is where most nephrons are located.
__ site of interlobular arteries and veins.
__ drains renal papilla.
__ drains major calyces.
__ drains bladder.
__ adheres to surface of kidney.
The __ of all nephrons is located within the renal cortex.
peritubular capillaries to renal tubules
The direction of material flow during secretion is ___. (reabsorption and filtration)
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