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30 terms

Test 4

Taxonomy continues: Phylum Echinoidermata Phylum Chaetognatha Phylum Hemichordata Phylum Chordata
STUDY
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Phylum Echinodermata
- SW
- Deutorostome
- CaCO3 endoskeleton
- ossicles may fuse to form plates & spines
- water vascular system - feeding & movement
Echinodermata classes
Asteroidea
Ophiuroidea
Echinoidea
Holothuroidea
Crinoidea
Asteroidea
Benthic, several cm-1m, pedicellariae
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, carnivore evert+ingest
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration: podia, papullae
Excretion: Podia, papullae
Reproduction: dioecious, bipinnaria
Nervous: ring+radial nerves, eye spots
Food web: predator of rocky areas
Regeneration: arms, part of asexual reproduction, biomodel
Ophiuroidea
Benthic, mm-cm, NO ampulla
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia
Digestion: incomplete,stomach,all feeding t.
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration: podia+bursae
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, ophiopluteus
Nervous: ring+radial nerves, endings in arm plates
Food web: soft sediment, coral reefs
Regeneration: arms+disk
Echinoidea
Benthic, cm, CaCO3 ossicles may fuse to form plates, plates fuse to form test
3 body types: sea urchin, sand dollar, heart urchin
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, herbivore(sea urchins) or deposit feed(sand dollar & heart urchins)
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration: podia, gills in some, petals
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, echinopluteus
Nervous: ring+radia nerves
Food web: commercial harvest, development biomodel.
Regeneration: poor
Holothuroidea
Benthic, cm-1m, ossicles miscroscopic/unfused in most species, muscles, evisceration
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, deposit/particles
Circulation: vessels, no heart
Respiration: respiratory trees, diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, auricularia
Nervous: ring+radial nerves
Food web: commercial harvest
Regeneration
Crinoidea
Benthic, cm, no madreporite
WVS:stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, filter feed
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration:diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, doliolaria
Nervous: stalk-cirri, mouth-arms, pinnule-podia
Food web: minor in reefs, FOSSILS
Regeneration
Phylum Chaetognatha
Planktonic, SW, mm-cm
Digestion: complete, carnivore
Circulation: n/a
Respiration: diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: monoecious, direct
Nervous: ganglia, nerve net, ocelli
Food web: predators of plankton
Phylum Hemichordata
Benthic, SW, cm-m, deutorostome
Digestion: complete, deposit feed
Circulation: heart-kidney, closed vessels, some sinuses
Respiration: gill pores, no gills
Excretion: heart-kidney
Reproduction: dioecious, tornaria
Nervous: nerve ring, dorsal+ventral cord
Food web: minor in soft sediment
Phylum Chordata characteristics
1) Deutorostome
2) Notochord
3)Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
4) Gill slits
5) Endostyle or thyroid
6) Post-anal tail
Chordata subphylums and classes
Subphylum Urochordata -> Ascidiacea
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Subphylum Vertebrata -> Myxinii, Cephalospidomorphi, Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia
Ascidiacea
Benthic, SW, few cm, attached, colonial/solitary
Digestion: complete, filter feed
Circulation: closed, reversing heart
Respiration: diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: monoecious, tadpole
Nervous: ganglia, nerve net
Food web: filter water in shallow area, habitat for other animals, bioactive compound
Cephalocordata
Benthic in sand, SW, few cm
Digestion: complete, filter feed
Circulation: closed, no heart
Respiration: diffusion
Excretion: metanephridia
Reproduction: dioecious, larval stage
Nervous: ganglia, nerve cord
Food web: minor part in some bays
Humans
Hox gene <-developmental control gene
Subphylum Vertebrata
T,SW,FW
-Cranial Case
-Brain more complex
-Closed circulatory system:heart w/2,3,4chambers
-Complex kidney:pronephric->mesonephric(opisthrnephric)->metanephric
Complete digestive system: mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,intestines, anus
sensory apparatus:eyes,ears,nose,semicircular canals(1,2,3)
Dioecious: oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous
Myxinii
SW,cm-1m
Jaws:n/a
Body cover:skin
Bones: n/a
Vertebrae:n/a
Paired appendages:n/a
Notochord: present
Semicircular canal: 1
Sensory:barbels,degenerate eyes
Feeding: scavenger,mouth w/small teeth, no stomach
Cephalospedomorphi
SW,FW,1m
Jaws:n/a
Body cover:skin
Bones: n/a
Vertebrae:n/a
Paired appendages:n/a
notochord: present
semicircular canals: 2
Sensory: eyes
Chondriethys
SW,FW,cm-12m
Jaws:present,upper not fused to skull
Body cover:placoid scales
Bones:n/a
vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:pectoral+pelvic fins
Notochord: reduced
Semicircular canal:3
Sensory: eyes,nostrils(external+internal), lateral lines, ampullae of Larenzini
Actinopterygii
SW,FW,cm-few m
Jaws: present, uupper not fused to skull
Body cover: scales (ganoid-bony)(cycoid)(ctenoid-toothlike),skin
Bones:present
Vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:pectoral+pelvic
Notochord:reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils, lateral line
Amphibia
FW, T
Jaws: present, upper fused to skull
Body cover: skin
Bones: present
Vertebrae: present
Paired appendages: fore+hind limbs
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes, ears, nostrils
Reptilia
T,FW,SW
Jaws: upper fused to skull,similar teeth
Body cover:scales
Bones:present
Vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:fore+hind limbs
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils,ears(external+internal),heat pits
Aves
T,FW,SW,cm-severalm
Feather types:contour(quil,shaft,vane),filoplume,down
Jaws:upper fused to skull, no teeth, beak
Body cover:feathers,scales on feet
Bones:present, hollow
Vertebrae:present, tail reduced
Paired appendages:feet+wings
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils,ears
Mammalia
T,SW,FW, cm-m
Jaws:upper fused to skull, lower free to move
Body cover:skin
Bones:present
Vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:fore+hind limbs
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils,ears
Actinopterygii
Digestion:all feeding types
Circulation:2c.heart
Respiration:gills,swim bladder
Excretion:mesonephric kidney, bladder, gills
Reproduction:oviparous, some with larva
Nervous:cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum
Food web:commercial harvest, pet trade
Cephalospedomorphi
Digestion: parasitic (no stomach, fluid meals) or none (function for reproduction)
Circulation: 2c. heart
Respiration: gills
Excretion: mesonephric kidney
Reproduction: oviparous, ammocoetes
Nervous: brain small cerebrum, small cerebellum
Food web: parasites on fish, great lake ecology
Myxinii
Circulation:2c.heart,3accessory hearts
Respiration:gills in gill pores
Excretion: pronephric-mesonephric kidney
Reproduction:both gonads present but only one functional,oviparous, direct
Nervous: brain, very small cerebrum, no cerebellum
Food web: scavengers in deep ocean
Chondriethys
Digestion:carnivore
Circulation:2c.heart
Respiration:(5-7)gills, spiracles
Excretion:mesonephric kidney,rectal gland,gills,blood
Reproduction:all types, no larva
Nervous:cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum(small)
Food web: top-predators, commercial harvest, attacks
Amphibia
Digestion:carnivores
Circulation:3c.heart
Respiration:lungs,gills,skin
Excretion:mesonephric kidney, bladder
Reproduction:oviparous,larva
Nervous:cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum
Food web:predators in lakes, commercial
Environment problems
Reptilia
Digestion:carnivores+herbivores
Circulation:3c.heart+in most 4 incives
Respiration:lungs
Excretion:metanephric kidney
Reproduction:most oviparous, no larva, SHELLED EGG(shell,chorion,amnion,allantois,yolksac,embryo)
Nervous:cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum(increased)
Food web:mid-level, commercial harvest,eggs,hides
Aves
Digestion:all types, crop in some
Circulation:4c.heart
Respiration:lungs+air sacs
Excretion:metanephric kidney
Reproduction:oviparous, hard egg shell, mating+nesting, right side ovary degenerate
Nervous:large cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum(w/visual area)
Food web:mid-upper, commercial harvest, farming, pet trade
Pollination, seed dispersal
Mammalia
Digestion:carnivores,herbivores,omnivores
Respiration:lungs
Excretion:metanephric kidney
Reproduction:Oviparous-monotremes, viviparous(placentral-placenta=chorion+alantois)(marsupials-pouch), mammary glands
Nervous:very large cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum well developed, commercial harvest, farming, hunting, pet trade
Food web:mid-upper
Pollination, seed dispersal