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Respiratory Pharmacology Set


mimics the sympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic Neuro-Receptors

Alpha: arteries and arterioles, B1: heart, B2: Lungs

Nor epinephrine

Sympathetic Nuero-transmitter

Adrenergic Bronchodilators

Drug class that directly stimulates Sympathetic Receptors

Effects of Epinephrine

Increased BP, Tachycardia, Skeletal Muscle Tremors, Short duration


Most common short acting bronchodilator


Single Isomer form of Albuterol (R Isomer)

Albuterol Dose

SVN: 2.5mg/3ml (unit dose), MDI 90 MCG/puff,

Levalbuterol Dose

SVN: 1.25mg/3ml (.31 &.63 mg/3ml) MDI: 45 MCG/puff

Long Acting Bronchodilators

For maintenance, duration 12hrs, Often used in combination w/ Corticosteroids

Long Acting Bronchodilator Rx <ADVair>

Salmeterol (Serevent) + Fluticasone (a synthetic corticosteroid.)= Advair


a bronchodilator and corticosteroid combination used to treat and prevent the symptoms of asthma.

Adrenergic AKA

Sympathomitmetic AKA

Muscarinic M2, M3

Parasympathetic Receptors in the airways


Non-selective Parasympathalitic Agent (a muscarinic receptor antagonist)

Anticholinergic agents

block acetylcholine receptors & act as cholinergic anatgonists

Cholinergic agents

uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter.


an antagonist of the Sympathetic Nervous System

Sympatholitic Agents

an agent blocking the effect of the Sympathetic Nervous System

Antiadrenergic AKA

Sympatholytic AKA

Sympathomimetic Agents

mimics the sympathetic system

Methylated Xanthines (CH3)

Caffeine, Theophylline and Theobromine

Clinical Indications for use of Xanthines

Considered the primary agent of choice for Apnea of Prematurity


The enzyme that degrades the parasympathetic neuro-transmitter


the enzymes that degrades the sympathetic neuro-transmitter


two or more agents working on the same target organ, resulting in a product greater than the sum of its parts


two agents working together resulting in a sum equal to both parts

Therapeutic Index

The appropriate dose that reduces risk of overdosing or underdosing


Drug used in extreme cases of RSV. Delivered via (SPAG) Small Particle Aerosol Generator

Albuterol inhalers

Ventolin, Proventil, Pro-Air (trade names)

Long -Acting Bronchodilators(12 hrs)

Serevent(Salmetrol) , Foradil(Formoterol), Brovana(Arformoterol)

Fluticasone + Salmeterol=

Advair Diskus (dpi) 50mcg /Seretide

Formoterol +Budesonide=


Albuterol + Ipratropium=

Combivent or DUOneb

Purpose of Mucus in physiology

effective lubricant, protective barrier, and sticky trap for foreign particles and microorganisms

Factors that slow mucus clearance

lung disease(COPD,CF), Airway drying, Narcotics, Airway Trauma, Cigarrette Smoking, Atmosphere pollutants


agents that destroy or dissolve mucus, degrade mucin, helpful in opening airways

Mucomyst generic name

N. Acetylcysteine trade name

Pulmozyme generic name

the trade name or Dornase alfa-used with CF

N. Acetylcysteine

mucolytic,(mucomyst) may cause bronchospasm (use w/bronchdilator), limited shelf life (refrig)

Dornase Alfa

mucolytic,(Pulmozyme) disrupts DNA polymers, effective in CF

Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL)

bronchoscope passed through mouth or nose into the lungs, a fluid is squirted into a small part of the lung and then recollected for examination.

Chronotropic Drugs mode of action

Drugs that change the HR by affecting signals to the SA node

Ionotropic Drug's mode of action

Drugs that affect the myocardial contractility

Side effects to corticosteroid use

Osteoporosis, adrenal suppresion, mood changes

Three Classifications of Antiinflammatory Agents

Corticosteroids, Leukotriene Antagonists, and Mast Cell Stabilizers

Common ACE inhibitors

CaptroPRIL, LisinoPRIL, EnalaPRIL, BenzaPRIL

Angiotensins effect on Blood Pressure

Blood vessels constrict and raise blood pressures

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Mode of Action(ACE Inhibitors)

Blocks the conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotension II

bradykinin defined

substance released by damaged tissue that promotes inflammation

Antithrombotics defined

Prophylactic Drug to treat Formation of Clots (blood thinners)

Drugs used to treat Thrombosis

Coumadin, Heparin, Lovenox


Initiate and mediate the inflammatory response (singulair is a Leukotriene Antagonist)

Mast Cell Stabilizers

inhibit the release of inflammatory chemicals from mast cells and make the airways less likely to narrow.

Chronotropics which increase Heart Rate

Atropine and Isoproternol

Chronotropics which decrease Heart Rate

Adenosine and Metoprolol (Beta Blockers)

Combined Inhaled Medicines Defined

Bronchodilators that combine a controller inhaler and a quick relief inhaler, or combine 2 controller inhalers into one.

Pharmacodynamic Defined

The drugs affect on the Body

Pharmacokinetic Defined

The Body's affect on the Drug

Tachyphylaxis Defined

rapidly decreasing response to a drug following administration of initial doses

The First Pass Effect

drug metabolism that occurs within the liver acts to reduce the effect

Peripheral Airway Deposition

<2.0 - 5.0 microns>

Upper Airway Deposition

<5.0 - 10.0 Microns>

Parenteral Defined

a, Subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous method of administration; treatment by injection.

20% increase to heart rate over baseline

Considerations to stop treatment of SABA (Sign of Side Effect)

Adrenergic Antagonists

The most common Sympatholytic Agent (Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism)

Possible side effects of thiazide diuretics

Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, dehydration(leads to hypotension)

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