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PSYC 300 Lifespan Development Final Exam
Terms in this set (184)
to an affectional (emotional) tie that binds a person to an intimate companion. They allow use to experience a sense of security that is if the attachment is secure rather than insecure.
2) Infants and caregivers have biological inborn tendencies to form attachments
(You see, formation of these attachments in infancy increases their chances for survival).
This is because the infant will tend to seek proximity or physical closeness to the attachment object-such as mom-who will protect infant from danger and thus promote survival.
has been referred to as the love hormone. It primes us to affiliate with others and encourages infants to nozzles against their moms.
4) Most ethnologists claim that the first 3 years of life are a
sensitive (critical) for human attachment. (Especially the period between 6 or 7 months of age and 3 years of age)
That implies that what happens during this period is critical for the person's ability to form healthy or unhealthy attachment to others.
refers to a biologically based connection between infant and parent.
6) Based on early attachment and bonding experience we all form Internal Working Models.
(Notions of how others will respond to us and of how lovable or unlovable we are.) (For example, if mom failed to love you, you may form an internal working model of others and the world a being unloving and ungiving, and uncaring.
7) A peer is best defined as
someone of equal social status.
8) Self-conscious emotions include quiet, shame, and pride, and embarrassment.
They require self-awareness in order to emerge. Self-recognition as measured by ability to recognize one's self in the mirror kicks in around age 18 months.
9) Social referencing involves to other people's reactions in order to judge how we behave
(thus if dad looks worried and hesitates to enter an unfamiliar room we as a young child are likely to hold back as well.)
10) Emotion regulation is
the process of initiating, maintaining, soothing & calming when we were upset as babies we can now self soothe by...
Thus we have internalized the soothing mechanisms first displayed towards as by mom.
11) While some parents be a source of emotional comfort other parents are a source of over stimulation.
12) Synchronized routine is common when mom and her child are in-sync with one another.
(Ex: a baby and her mom take turns sticking out their tongues at one another. Partners take turns responding to each other's needs.)
13) A parent's attachment relationship to his or her child builds gradually over a photo of many months. Skin to skin contact between mom/dad and infant is neither necessary nor sufficient to result long-term secure attachment.
By 2 to 3 months of age, infants typically 1st begin to experience a preference for familiar person.
. But it is not until about age six or seven months that infant his/her primary attachment up until then indiscriminating social responsiveness often prevails. (In that the infant equally satisfied to allow anyone to hold him/her). At age 6 or 7 months infant discriminates mom (or main caregiver) from others to show a clear
preference for mom to hold him/her. Separation anxiety as shows by crying and upset when mom leaves is one important sign that infant has form a discriminating attachment to mom. Separation anxiety may reappear when a teen goes far away for college.
15) Separation anxiety peaks 1st and is followed by stranger anxiety. After all, a stranger may be dangerous.
(Is more likely to be than his mom) Thus, we have evolved to develop stranger anxiety.
16) Regarding stranger anxiety
A) It is less likely to occur when mom is close by
B) It is lessened when the caregiver respond positively to the stranger.
C) It is affected by the appearance of the stranger.
17) The stranger situation procedure is used to assess the quality of an attachment. Mary Ainsworth developed it. It involves observing and noting
A) The babies' reaction when separated from mom in a unfamiliar situation.
B) Baby's reaction when mom is clearly gone.
C) Baby's reaction when mom returns.
18) When baby has secure attachment to mom baby:
A) Will become upset when separated involuntarily from mom.
B) Will remain upset when it is clean that mom is really gone.
C) But will be readily (rather easily)
Avoidant attachment is common when mom is unloving, inconsistently loving, or unavailable emotionally.
Is generated when the mother is unloving, or unattached to the child
Is characterized by a lack of interest in Mom (lack of concern when mom leaves infant in a strange situation test) there's also a lack of attention to mom when she returns.
"Frieda is 18 months old, she and her mother are visiting a friend, Frieda seems uninterested, and seems uninterested that her mother has left the room. Frieda ignores her mom and wanders away."
It is as if the child does not want to expose himself to the risk of rejection. It has learned to get along without mom. (or child wants to avoid PISSING MOM OFF!, because in the past, she may have gotten annoyed when the child sought her attention.)
Disorganized disoriented attachment style often develops due to infant's fear of mother (because she was often verbally and or physically abusive) or infants reactions to a mom who acts afraid.
The infant is really embroiled in an approach avoidance conflict.
"He wants closeness with mom but is afraid of her anger or fearful reactions."
Approach avoidance conflict shows a tendency to want to approach and avoid the same person "maybe she'll like me; maybe she won't!"
As a result, when mom returns after separation, the infant then becomes disorganized or disoriented.
He may act dazed, or he may run towards mom, and when half way there he stops turns around and then runs away!
(The child may lie face-down on the floor without moving. The child may crawl under the table and not move)
"As if mom's angry or fearful reaction has overwhelmed the child!"
This attachment style is the one most related with later emotional problems
It is the attachment type best associated with having a mom who is abusing drugs.
Odin is attached to his dad Thor, the most interesting feature, is about whether or not Thor should approach or avoid dad.
approach avoidance conflict.
Freud believed that the attachment relationship between parent and child occurred because of early feeding experiences.
"Freud and Watson and Skinner all believed that the relationship between Mom and Child develops as a result of early feeding experiences. (Food is the primary reinforce + Mom's presence becomes rewarding because it's associated with the delivery of food)"
But! Harlow studies with Monkey's found that after the first two weeks of life, contact comfort (a wonderful tactile sensation) was the most important reinforcement.
Contact with a soft cuddly caregiver, whether it be a doll, or in humans a soft cuddly mom.
Seems more important than feeding experiences in establishing parent-child attachments.
While researching attachment behavior professor Plum noticed that infants are most likely to attach to caregivers who wear soft cuddly sweaters, this is a result of.
A parent needs to be sensitive emotionally to what his or her baby needs at any given point in time + gratify the need promptly.
A secure attachment is often best defined by cultural standards, which can vary from one country to another.
German Parents tend to encourage independence in their children.
Japanese parents tend to encourage dependence in their children.
A good summary conclusion to research on infants raised in deprived institutionalized settings, such as orphanages, or other deprived institutional settings, is that it is better to have loved and lost, then to never who have loved at all.
Research on deprived Romanian infants found that lack of fiscal contact can lead to delays in cognitive, physical, and or socio-emotional development.
Many infants raised for first 12 months in extremely deprived environments, tend to show
A. Emotional Withdrawl
B. Mild Cognitive Retardation
C. Delayed Motor Skills
Romanian infants who experience the longest duration of early deprivation were most likely to show
indiscriminate attachment (friendliness)
and difficulty in reciprocal social interactions.
"This is sometimes referred to as disinhibited attachment"
Infants raised in orphanages for first 8 (or more) months of life show that children deprived of intellectual stimulation during the first six months of life often display long-term negative impacts on their cognitive intellectual skills.
A stable team of loving and sensitive caregivers may help prevents the extreme negative impacts often seen in orphanage infants.
According to 2006 National Institute of Child Health in a Human Development Study, it should be "quality, in terms of care, that matters."
Characteristics of High-Quality daycare include
A. Responsive Caregivers
B. Age Appropriate Stimulation Activities (including toys)
C. The Child-to-Caregiver ratio of about 3:1 for infants
As an infant molly was securely attached to her mom and dad, and this attachment has not changed when she enters pre-school, she will most tend to
Answer: Be curious and willing to explore her environment
A secure attachment in infancy has been found to predict the quality of peer-relationships in elementary school.
(Many kids with avoidant, resistant, or disorganized attachments have trouble making friends and having good peer-relationships)
A secure attachment to Dad can compensate for a poor attachment relationship with mom.
A secure attachment may become insecure as a result of major stresses in the family. (Such as a divorce, or mom returning to work)
Israeli Kibbutzim studies (where kids are raised in groups) found that kids as young as 1 year old can 1st begin to show true attachment to other kids.
From Age 2 - 5 play behavior becomes more social and more imaginative. (Reflecting the increased use of fantasy and preoperational thinking processes)
types of play include
A. Unoccupied Play
which involves aimless activities, like pacing, and or idly standing by.
B. Onlooker Play:
As seen in a kid watching a group of kids playing with Legos.
Five year old Otto is watching a group of kids playing with Lego blocks, occasionally he'll say things like that's a neat car, or I want some blocks, he never actually sits down and plays with the blocks himself.
C. Solitary Play:
John is on the floor, and is highly engaged in pushing a toy train around the track by himself.
D. Parallel Play:
Fay and Ray are both playing with dolls in the corner. They are dressing and undressing the dolls and pretending to feed them. However Fay and Ray do not talk to one another, or involve each other in their play.
E. Cooperative Play:
involves activities directed toward a common goal.
Benny and Jenny are playing "school." Benny is the teacher, and Jenny is the student. After a time, they decide they need a principal and some more students, so they ask Lenny, Stenny, Kenny to join them.
F. Pretend Play:
One year old Tiffany sees her cup is empty, she then lifts her cup to her lips, tips it towards her mouth, and smile and pretends she's drinking "the finest scotch in the world."
In order to demonstrate pretend play, the child must have the ability to construct a mental representation of an event.
Piaget believed that in order for a child to engage in play cooperatively, the child must have reached the (Concrete Operational Stage) to play with others in games that involve rules.
In 19th century in America, social pretend play was seen as frivolous, but today it is an important part of development.
Children who engage in this type of play tend to be more socially mature and popular than those who do not.
Sociometric techniques are used to see who is liked and disliked in a group. (Such as a classroom full of kids)
In this regard,
A. An average child
or child, will be rated in the middle on both liked and disliked scales.
B. A neglected child
is rarely chosen as a work mate or playmate, yet is not disliked by most of her peers. This child tends to be shy and quiet. (as if she blends into the woodwork) When she is rarely asked to play, she tends to say "no, I'm not good at that. (then walks away) "
C. A Rejected Child:
Is disliked by a majority of peers. (some may even say, I hate that kid!)
D. A Controversial Child
is both well liked and disliked by others. (Often to an equal degree) 15 kids like him, 15 kids dislike him.
E. A Popular Child
liked by most, and rejected by few.
Popularity in childhood is associated with
1. Being Physically Attractive
2. Being Intelligent
3. Being Socially Competent
In terms of rejected kids
A. A child who is rejected by peers one year, will likely again be rejected the next. Especially if the rejection is due to their being aggressive.
B. Rejected Kids are at risk for becoming Juvenile Delinquents.
C. Rejected Kids tend to enter new situations expecting to be disliked.
During Adolescents early dating relationships tend to be short lived when compared with later adolescence.
The phases of dating as indicated by Brown include
The person's main focus is on his or her self. On a Quest To see him or her self as capable of relating to the opposite sex in a romantic way.
B. Status Phase
Again, person is focused on himself, and the fact that his status is high. He knows this, because he is dating the Head Cheerleader.
He is as cool as the clique he is a member of. (a clique is a group of friends/peers)
The Affection Phase
During the affection phase of dating, the relationship itself becomes the focus of attention and romantic relationships become more personal.
The Bonding Phase
Now the relationship involves a sense of long term commitment and high levels of emotional intimacy.
Doug and Gary dating involves long term commitment and high levels of emotional commitment.
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Suggests that shrinking (fewer) social networks in adulthood are by choice. This is because they are more emotionally meaningful.
Older adults seek social interactions that are emotionally meaningful
The ones that aren't are the ones more likely to drop out.
Men tend to have fewer friends as they get older in adulthood.
As people move into old age, the positivity effect often is more apparent. (it involves paying more attention to and remember more positive than negative information.
Tabatha is at the doctor getting a check-up her Blood pressure is pretty high Bone density in the middle range Cholesterol is fine when her husband asks, she suggests the doctor said she was "fine" Tabath is displaying the?
Answer: The Positivity Effect
This partly explains why middle aged people are more likely to be depressed than the elderly.
In terms of Romance
A. Men (more than women) place a lot of emphasis on physical attractiveness in a partner. (Men link a woman's physical attractiveness with her having higher chances of being fertile) Thus allowing his genes to be propelled into the future.
B. Women are more likely than men to prize in a male partner having a steady income, being responsible, etc... Since these are features that are associated with a man's ability and tendency to stick around and care for her and her kids if the relationship becomes permanent
C. Potential Romantic partnerships begin with the evaluation of external qualities, and then later transitions into internal qualities this best illustrated the filter theory of mate selection it argues that when we assess the desirability of a given romantic partner.
1. That person needs to pass through a filter. (if person is not physically attractive enough, things may end before the relationship begins)
2. A second filter is often similarities in race, education, socio-economic status
3. If 2 is fulfilled people may focus on inner qualities like (belief, values, moral issues, etc..)
Similarities = Homogamy
"birds of a feather; flock together."
Sternberg identified three components of his triangular theory of love.
1. Intimacy: even though the passion in our relationship is much lower now, I truly love my partner, and feel very comfortable with him or her.
We share so much that in some ways what we have is better than passion
2. Commitment: You know, we've been married 300 years now. I would not dream of ending the relationship. Once you are married it should be for life.
My wife is like a comfortable old shoe, a lot better than those new not-broken-in Cole Hann's that I bought yesterday.
3. Passion: The intense, often raw, sexualized desire and on-fire attraction for the partner.
The Relationship at this point is fueled by amphetamine-like substances like PEA (Phenylethylamine) that make you feel more passionate than ever before.
is infrequent and involves a relationship of some duration that seems to have all three elements of Sternberg's love triangle (your soul mate)
Intimacy + Commitment + Passion = Consummate Love
is best characterized by a combination of intimacy and commitment but no passion ( we still have sex on birthdays and such, but if the sex disappeared, I'd be okay with that too.
Commitment + Intimacy = Companionate Love
Kobak took Ainsworth's attachment styles and applied them to adults.
Others used the adult attachment interview (AAI) to assess an adult's attachment to a romantic partner.
In this regard,
in childhood predicts a secure model of self as an adult and a corresponding ability to be emotionally involved in a relationship with a lot of reciprocity, love and trust. There is also a sense that you deserve to be loved. (Feel secure that things will continue)
A childhood Resistant Attachment Style
predicts a preoccupied model of self.
(I like people, but it doesn't seem like they always like me as well as I like them. I love my partner, but I love her more than she loves me. I worry about being abandoned. I guess I'm not too sure of myself.)
In an Avoidant Attachment Style it can predict
an avoidant model of self, and tendencies to Dismissing significant emotional closeness in relationships. (All that hugging is time consuming, I don't need it. Once I have sex with my girlfriend, I'm ready to hit the road)
In a Disorganized Attachment in childhood, it sometimes predicts
a fearful model of self which in terms of relationships involves a confusing unpredictable mix of neediness and fear of closeness.
(I don't really like myself too well. I don't particularly like other people, but I would like to meet somebody nice to be with but I don't really know how to do it.)
A. For Elderly people, old friends tend to be the best friends!
B. The quality of an adults social relationships is closely related to a sense of well-being.
C. Married people (especially husbands) spouses are the most important confidant
In some relationships, if the person is borderline personality disorder, anxious disclosure can occur
Sharing too much too soon, in an attempt to closely bond with an individual, when the sharing may actually cause more problems than establish intimacy.
Avoidant people, or dismissing people, prefer anxiously attached partners, who affirm their form of self
They view others as weak, needy, and dependent.
Two easily activated attachment systems of anxious people seem to favor falling in love frequently anf astly to create a false sense of security
Avoidant people find it more difficult to fall in love, they may say things such as, I don't believe in love.
Anxious people's desire for closeness and worries about being subjected, seem to favor intense and more subjective types of love
Anxious people tend to agree with the statement, few people are as willing and able as I am to commit to a strong relationship.
People may only notice signs of rejection! (Hyper-vigilance)
Avoidant people (dismissing) make less use of sweet talk or baby talk.
More avoidant people laugh less, touch their partners less, and were less expressive with their partners.
Anxious people tended to reciprocate with increased involvement when there are periods of disinterest from their partner.
Avoidant people will increase that distance.
Some people feel as though the necessary requirements involve a frustrated needs state
A threat or loss of self-esteem
The recognition of one's own incompleteness, seems to be at the root of this type of thinking.
When we fall in love, it demonstrates a frustrated needs state, in which we seek a partner who can make up for those!
Falling in love
In the process of evolution, people may have had a greater sense of falling love, relating with those who have different genetic make-up.
Robust romantic love, was necessary to overcome fear and weariness in meeting people from other tribes
Romantic love contributed in all likelihood to reproductive past.
focus on studying the origins and past of maladaptive behavior
Developmental Pathway Model
says that different developmental pathways can lead to the same outcome. (The same type and degree of depression may result from somewhat different genes in different people.)
In one person the depression may be due to an early environment, characterized by loss, trauma, and lack of love.
In another person, it may be due much more to genetic predisposition (factors)
The Diathesis (predisposition) - Stress Model
Claims that an emotional disorder involves a predisposition which may be genetic, constitutional, or early experiential environmental as well as a more immediate stressor. (Like loss of job; divorce etc...)
(Thus a stressful event triggers an already existing predisposition)
If a diathesis for a psychological disorder is strong, personality or a genetic predisposition will play a significant role in whether it is expressed.
Diathesis stress model research indicates that genes predispose some people to depression and influence the extent to which a person experiences stressful life events.
Thus, genes may predispose you to be depressed and chronically irritable.
This pessimism and irritability may bother other people and cause them to be unfriendly to you and ultimately reject you.
(stressful life events to say the least)
Autism Spectrum Disorder
A. Autism itself involves as its defining features both social and communication deficits. (difficulty forming social relationships, responding appropriately to social cues, and sharing experiences with others)
B. Restricted and Repetitive Interests and Behaviors, such as
1. Obsession with certain objects like bugs, or cords, or lamps.
2. Rocking Back and Forth
3. One feature common in autistic kids is echolalia
Echolalia: parroting back what someone says (repeating their words)
C. Another feature you sometimes see is reversing pronouns.
(when you encounter a smelly stranger and say "I stink!" instead of "you stink!"
D. Autism is known as a pervasive developmental disorder which typically has a strong genetic component.
Echolalia: parroting back what someone says (repeating their words)
You enter a room and see a child with randomly flapping arms, the child becomes extremely agitated, and plays with the blinds of a window
The child is likely?
E. The most likely reason for the increase in number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders is that there is now a broader definition for what used to be called just Autism.
F. Autistic children tend to lack a theory of mind in other words, the understanding that other people have emotions and that other people's emotions may differ from one another.
What behavior would an infant display, that would lead a doctor to believe the child is suffering from Autism?
Answer: Failure to respond to human voices
G. The brain areas most implicated as possible causes of behavior problems found in Autistic people are
The front cortex (autistic kids often lack an ability to plan, to reason, and do other things that the prefrontal cortex is involved with.) and the amygdala
H. Many Genes have been implicated, including some that appear to have been copied too many times.
I. The Mirror Neuron Simulation Hypothesis is associated with autism. Mirror Neurons allow us to relate the feelings of others to our own experiences.
Thus, helping us to empathize with other people's feelings.
J. Recent research has shown that the nasal administration of oxytocin (sometimes called the love hormone) seems to improve social information and understanding (functioning) in HIGH FUNCTIONING people with autism
K. One of the very best predictors of the potential of an autistic child to adapt satisfactory is his degree of language development.
L. Behavioral and Educational programs are the best interventions
(example: you reinforce or reward an autistic child for looking his parent in the face, hugging a parent, kissing a parent, etc...)
M. Behavioral and Cognitive Interventions can lead to significant gains, especially in young kids who do not have severe intellectual difficulties.
15% or more have special splinter skills (super good at math, always knows the date, etc...)
O. Asperger's Syndrome
is sometimes called high-functioning autism, and involves limited social skills, but often much higher verbal skills than frankly autistic kids. These kids are sometimes known as "little professors" in that they will have special interest in one topic. (train schedules)
They may talk about them for hours!
Failure to thrive in otherwise healthy infants. (They lose weight even though they consume food) is usually the result of having unaffectionate or depressed caregivers
Boys, when they have an emotional disorder, are more likely to have an externalizing disorder.
In other words, (acting out disorder)
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (verbally defying parents when they ask that child to do something)
Conduct Disorder: Disobeying societal rules so that they cause harm to property, animals, or other humans!
In contrast to externalizing disorders. Internalizing Disorders involve inner turmoil (as seen in disorders like depression, anxiety and eating disorders.
Internalizing disorders are usually more disruptive to self, than are others.
Caspi found that inhibited children who were shy, anxious, and easily upset at age 3 were most likely to be diagnosed with depression at age 21.
Children's disorders may not manifest themselves in the same way adult disorders do
Kids with behavioral disorders (like acting out) are unlikely to exhibit these same disorders as adults.
This notion/finding illustrates the concept of developmental discontinuity
Kids with anxiety (an internalizing disorder) problems are likely to exhibit the same disorder as adults.
When anxiety and depression occur together in the same person, we say that they are comorbid.
Protective factors may help kids from becoming to avoid maladjustment in the face of risk.
A formerly secure attachment to main caregiver as a child and maybe a current secure attachment.
Other examples include...
Being physically attractive, having a higher than average IQ.
Depressed preschool children are less likely to display cognitive symptoms of depression, like hopelessness. (Instead of appearing sad, kids and teens ay manifest depression through irritability.
Chronic irritability is often suggestive of underlying problems
Kids with depressive disorder often show depression as adults.
Rather than meds cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective treatment for childhood depression.
In 1904 the U.S. government issued a warning regarding anti-depressant drugs and the possible risk of suicide
Anti-Depressant drugs (like SSRI's) may increase the risk of suicide in kids, teens, and young adults (age 20, 21)
Adolescents is a time of heightened vulnerability for some disorders. (Like eating disorders)
literally means "nervous loss of appetite." Diagnostic signs include
A. Refusal to maintain a weight at least 85% of what is expected for your height and weight.
B. Fear of getting fat
C. Distortion of body image so that very thin people see themselves as obese.
Genes appear to contribute much of the risk for developing anorexia. (51% worth) for developing anorexia. Other causal factors include controlling parents (especially mom) "eating may be the only thing she feels that she can control."
Don't forget also the role of that western cultures emphasis on beauty as it relates to thinness.
When TV was introduced to the island of Fiji, girls who had formerly seen a plump body as a status symbol developed a strong desire to lose weight.
The Maudsley approach to treating anorexia says that considering the role of parents in the treatment process must be a critical part of the treatment team with the goal facilitating weight gain.
The two biggest reasons for difficulty treating anorexics are ineffective medications and their strong resistance to admitting that they have a problem.
Binge drinking is defined as consuming more than 5 alcoholic beverages in a row, in a single drinking session.
In Dodge's cascade model of substance abuse the following steps occur, from first to last. (Except intervention, which can occur at any stage)
A. A child being at risk due to a difficult temperament (typically has a large genetic component)
B. The child is born into an adverse family environment.
C. The child is exposed to harsh parenting, and family conflict.
D. The child develops behavior problems. (like aggression, conduct disorder)
E. Is rejected by peers and gets in trouble at school
F. His frustrated parents may periodically, or episodically, beat the hell out of him (or give up trying)
G. Attributing to involvement in a deviant peer group where the teen is exposed to and reinforced for drug abuse, crime, delinquency, etc...
An early maturing female is at more risk for depression than a male or an average maturing or late maturing female. She is also at more risk as is an early maturing male for early entry into sex and drugs.
It is hard to deal with adolescent jokes by males and the way adults may view the teen.
"Anyone that well developed must be promiscuous."
There may also be a sense of awkwardness and inferiority often linked to self-perception of developing sexuality and looking difference from peers.
While accidents and homicide are the two most common causes of teen death, suicide is the third leading cause.
1/4 of suicide team victims are not severely depressed at time of suicide, but do it impulsively.
A history of behavioral problems (such as binge drinking, risky sex, aggression, eating disorder) put teens at greater risk for committing suicide.
While adult women are three times more likely to attempt suicide.
Men are about three times more likely to commit it.
While suicide rate among women peaks around age 60-65, in men the rate continues to rise the older they get! In effect a 90 year old man is at more risk than an 80 year old man.
Depression is harder to diagnose in older adults (old people 65+) because the behaviors of old age and symptoms of depression are often the same.
Thus, both depressed and old people suffer from
A. Reduced ability to concentrate.
B. Slower Reaction Time
C. Sleeping Problems
D. Reduced Appetite
Diagnostic Signs of Depression as well as normal losses associated with aging.
The rest of depression, anxiety, and mental disorder in general is less among old people than middle aged people, young adults, and teens.
Dementia is the clinical term for senility. It is best defined as a progressive loss of neural (brain) functioning.
The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's disease.
In contrast to externalizing disorders, internalizing disorders involve inner turmoil as seen in disorders like depression and anxiety and eating disorders. Thus internalizing disorders are more disruptive to self and others.
Caspi found that inhibited kids who were shy, anxious, and easily upset at age 3 were most likely (of any disorders) to be diagnosed with depression at age 21.
Thus kids with behavioral disorders (like acting out) are likely to exhibit these same disorders as adults. This finding illustrates the concept of ____________________
But kids with anxiety problems (an internalizing disorder) are likely to exhibit the same disorder as adults. Often combined with depression. When anxiety and depression occur together in the same person, we say that they are comorbid.
Protective factors help kids to avoid maladjustment in the face of risk. (Conflicts at homes, parents' divorce)
A formally secure attachment to main caregiver as a child and maybe a current secure attachment with another figure now.
Other examples include being physically attractive and having a higher than average IQ
) Depressed preschool aged kids (age3 and 4) are less likely to than adults to display cognitive sx of depression like hopelessness. (..appearing sad, kids and teens may manifest depression through irritability)
Kids with depressive disorder often show depression as adults.
Rather than meds, cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective treatment for childhood depression. Anti-depressive drugs like SSRIs may increase the risk of suicide in kids, teens, and young adults (20, 21). (Prevent the reuptake of serotonin)
Senile plaques (Beta amyloids are at the core of these senile plaques) sticky substance that increases in its build up. A gummy mess to say the least. The brain resembles a war zone.
the first sign of Alzheimer's is typically trouble remembering recently learned verbal material. Your granddaughter introduces you to her new boyfriend, but in the span of 90 minutes you ask her you to introduce you 7 times. (You forget she's ever done it.)
) A gene segment on the 19th chromosome has been implicated as a likely cause of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The ApoE4 gene appears to contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease thru an increased buildup of beta amyloid.
Earlier in CH 16, Asperger's syndrome is discussed. It is considered an autism spectrum disorder characterized by difficulties and awkwardness. But a higher verbal skills than with autism.
1) A Harvard Group definition of biological death includes
A. Failure to move for one hour and failure to breath for 3 minutes after removal form a ventilator
B. Person is totally unresponsive to stimuli (including a pin prick or what would result in pain in living people.
C. There is a lack of reflexes
D. There is no electrical activity in cortex of the brain. (Flat EEG)
2) You can be brain dead nut still remain alive as evidence by a heart that continues to beat. When one say " Brain dead" we are usually referring to death of activity in the cerebral cortex (so that there is seemingly no thinking, no reasoning, no higher level processes associated with quality of life
3) Compared with the modern USA, Europeans in the Middle Ages and Asians today were and are more likely to care for their dying relatives at home.
4) If you do not want to be hooked up to machines to keep you alive, specify this in a living will.
5) In order to hasten death in the frail elderly, the following practices have been used
A. Depriving them of food
B. Stabbing them upon request
C. Driving them from their home
6) In the US today, the average life expectancy is about 76 for males and 81 for females.
7) Hormonal difference may well account for sex differences in life expectancy
8) Most common causes of death
A. In infants = congenital abnormalities. (like a defective heart or defective kidneys)
B. In young kids and teens and young adults= accidents (kids: falls; teens: car accidents)
C. Adults age 45 to 60s = cancer followed by heart disease
D. The elderly= heart disease
9) With regard to theories of death
A. Programmed theories claim that aging and death are under genetic control. The hypothalamus serves as an aging clock. The Hay Flick limit refers to the number of times a cell can divide (Double itself). (The average cell seems to have the capacity to divide about 50 times, plus or minus 10) The death clock starts cells dividing at conception and later stops the cells so that we die.
B. Damage theories of aging argue that in early development our cells (reproduce) faithfully, but in later life this fidelity is lost and cells become increasingly likely to have problems (abnormalities in cells, etc.) The notion is that death results form an accumulation of deficits in cells and organs over time.
Free Radical Theory is best seen as a damaged theory of aging. Free radicals occur naturally but may increase due to sunlight, toxins, x-rays, etc. They have a "free electron" which is chemically unstable and can damage a cell's DNA.
(Free radicals are by product of the metabolism of oxygen and can result in darkened age spots in the arm.)
10) A combination of both damage and programmed theories seems to be the best explanation of why we age.
The most likely change in aging that will take place in the near future is a significant increase in average age of death (Not in how long the longest lived person survives.)
1) Some concern suggested trying to stop the age process by controlling the shortening of telomeres is that this may increase the risk of cancer.
13) Antioxidants (Like vitamin C) exhibit free radical activity in the body.
14) If you believe in the metabolic theory of aging you would advise a person to severely restricted their calories that they consume a day ( restrict food intake) Maybe 1800 calories a day
Severely restricting diet seems to impact aging by
A. reducing the number of free radicals
B. altering gene activity
16) People consuming only 1800 calories a day show physiological improvement but this disappeared once a normal diet was resumed.
17) In the 1970s Elizabeth Kubler-Ross did research on dying people and came up with her so-called "Stages of dying". Her theory was very popular by the 1970s but is less popular now.
These theories include
A. Denial—doc; you received the wrong test results, I am healthy and I am not going to die. (In spite Dr. rerunning these test twice) (Anx producing thoughts have been resisted)
B. Anger—why me, dammit?
C. Bargaining—Oh God, I will give a million dollars to charity if you let me live
D. Depression - The fact that you (or your close loved one) WILL DIE has sunk in. You no longer deny it, it seems very real to you, and you are depressed about the loss and about the fact that it is inevitable. (It is stamped solid)
E. Acceptance - we now accept mortality and death (our own or that of a close loved one) in this, there is a certain peace of mind. You are ready for what lies ahead. (A peaceful acceptance of the inevitable) After all, no one lives forever, not
With regard to Kubler-Ross's theory, subsequent research on death and dying, determined that the dying process does not unfold in the manner she suggested.
(This process is simple not stage like)
In fact, Shneidman's work suggests that dying people experience myriad (a host of and or various) emotional responses with many unpredictable ups & downs.
(A person that seems to have accepted death may seem to backslide, they may experience anger or denial)
Thus valid criticism's of Kubler-Ross's theory of dying are
A. There is no standard order to the stages of dying.
B. It does not really take the course of the illness into account. (The Dying trajectory can differ from one person to another. Someone who dies in a hurry may not go through any kind of anger, bargaining, or denial. This is contrast to somebody who has a long and slow death.)
A state of loss, while grief involves your emotional response to loss
Emotions associated with grief include
(sadness, denial, anger, relief, disbelief, confusion)
Mourning is a culturally prescribed way of reacting to death.
It can include wearing black, having a big wake, etc...
involves grieving before death occurs. (you have already cried on 26 separate occasions about the impending death of your father. Thus you have worked through some of the grief by the time he dies)
Glenn's friend Clint Eastwood has been diagnosed as terminally ill. Glenn has grieved to deal with the stress of the fact that he will lose his friend Clint. Glenn is suffering from?
Answer: Anticipatory Grief
The Parkes/Bowby model of Grieving suggests that
"a grieving adult is much like an infant who is experiencing separation anxiety"
However, kids do not grieve like adults do, this is because they are not atuned to what death involves.
For a four year-old, dead people are like living people, in that they can still watch TV, play games, eat, dance.
sometimes called the eight year-old anxiety because it is not until age 7 or 8 that death is conceived of as fixed, firm, and immutable. (Once you died, it cannot be reversed, and dead people do not carry on any activities that living people do)
Fear of Death and Dying tends to peak out in middle age (when one is in ones forties)
There is a reason for this. The next generation to die is my generation becomes the center point of thought. I've lived more years than I have left on earth.
As people enter old age death anxiety actually decreases (more people fear the dying process than death itself) you have more readily accepted your own mortality and death as a part of life.
The Reactions described in the Parkes/Bowby attachment model of bereavement are (in order)
A. Numbness: In the first few hours or days after death the survivor (bereaved person) is in a daze! There is a sense of SHOCK! You can't believe it. The mind has protected itself against pain & is struggling to defend against feeling the full weight of the loss!
B. Yearning: there is an acute separation anxiety & effort to reunite with the deceased loved one. (wearing your wife's favorite sweater, in an attempt to feel closer to her) It is most severe from 5-14 days after the death. (you're restless, sad, crying, unable to concentrate) you seem to be searching for the dead loved one in order to be reunited. Another example would be reading a magazine your husband used to read.
C. Disorganization and Despair: Grief and Yearning become less frequent, it sinks in that reunion is impossible. You still feel apathetic, and have difficulty taking interest in life's activities.
D. Reorganization: We have now pulled ourselves together. We have less energy and preoccupation invested in the dead person. In other words, a Freud would say A "A de-Cathexis has occurred." Instead we become more focused in others who are living.
After her husband dies, Hannah has been unable to cope with the death of her husband, she wear a sweater to feel closer with him, what is Hannah Suffering from?
Allan's wife died years ago, he began transitioning from is stages of grieving and started dating again, he has entered?
According to the Dual-Process model, the bereaved oscillates (alternates) between coping and taking a break from coping.
Dealing with practical matters linked to spouse's death. (finances, etc..)
Taking a Break:
letting yourself experience the sadness, and cry. This may itself alternate with having comforting memories of when dead spouse was alive.
Restoration Oriented Coping
focusing your attention on the world, perhaps on taking over practical tasks formally taken care of by the deceased loved one.
Bowlby defined three stages that kids go through when they are separated from a parent. (Through hospitalization or death!)
A. (Initial) protest: You as a kid protest the loss by crying or yelling for mom's return! You are very upset You seek mom out through your active, loud, and frantic protest.
B. Despair: involves a less active more depressed apathetic state. Where a child looks sad, dejected, and abandoned. (what a lousy feeling)
C. Detachment: If the separation occurs long enough, the child seems to improve and be much less depressed. He or she now allows others to approach and hold him/her. However, his or her attachment to other people is superficial, as if he/she has turned him/herself off to the possibility of being hurt ever again in the same way. (as if he/she has erected a plexy-glass screen)
The most mature understanding of death involves the knowledge that death is linked to biological causality.
(whether your are shot or die of cancer) Biological processes take place as a result of the trauma, disease, etc... the biological processes cause your body to shut down and your heart to stop.
We know that John understands the Universality of death (nobody has made it out of this fight yet, and I'm not going to be the first) when he says to himself, everything that lives dies!
"Once Dead, always dead" matches the death concept of irreversibility!
Telling your kid that death is like going to sleep is likely to contribute to his/her misconception that death is a temporary state!
12 year old harry and his four year old brother potter recently experienced the death of their mother Henrietta, how are their losses of their mother likely to differ?
Answer: A 12 year old is more like than a four year old to find or experience comfort, by imagining his deceased parents.
Adolescents are more likely than younger children to think about the possibility of an afterlife.
involves heightened grief that continues to linger following the death of a spouse. (it can linger for years)
Examples of Pathological Grief involve
A. Retaining all possessions of the deceased person. (look all of Pa's clothes are still in his closet. I wash them monthly that they still smell pretty! Also, Pa's shotgun remains in the rack! We had it cleaned and oiled after he shot himself dead with it!) (O-o)
B. A person experiences anger, etc... about a death or loss, but never experiences sadness!
The best predictor of depression four years after a spouses death is having been depressed prior to the death of spouse! (having a clear history of depression)
Disenfranchised Grief is not fully recognized by others and is thus generally harder to cope with than other forms of grief. In the USA, the following people are more likely to experience disenfranchised grief!
A. A female whose ex-husband just died.
B. A gay male whose partner just died.
C. A woman who just miscarried her fetus.
Death of a grandchild is a "Double-whammy!" for grandparents. This is because they often feel guilt about the loss, and feel helpless to protect their adult child from pain.
The Grief-Work Perspective
It evolved out of Psychoanalytic Theory.
It claims that in order to cope with death a bereaved person must feel the grief, sadness, and loss deeply. In order eventually to move toward detaching (de cathecting) from the deceased. (In other words confront the loss and detach from the deceased person emotionally)
Research has been generated from this grief-work hypothesis, and its findings support the alternative hypothesis that too much ruminating, (deliberating, going over and over the loss, in order to work through it) may actually backfire, instead and prolong psychological distress rather than relieve it.
continuing bonds concept suggests
that we may continue to have a relationship of sorts with the dead person.
(We do this by reminiscing about him or her and our time together. We do this by contemplating what the deceased person would advise you to do in certain rough circumstances, or current dilemma) you may well continue to feel this person's presence.
Continuing Bonds seem most
helpful when they are internal memories of the deceased that provide a base for becoming independent.
People who have the most difficult time coping with the death of a loved one, tend to be low in self-esteem and highly neurotic. (screwed up emotionally)
Death of a parent experienced by a child may be lessened in its negative effects by good parenting by the living parent, strong support from siblings, and having people willing to talk to you about your feelings.
Grieving would likely be greatest if the deceased
A. Was fairly young and died suddenly and unexpectedly
B. Was very close emotionally to you.
C. If the Death was perceived as "senseless" (A young parents in his or her prime who died leaving several small children; or if the person who died was an infant or child)
A major difference between hospice care and hospital care for dying people is that a more homelike setting of care is emphasized in the hospice care setting.
Research has shown that dying individuals in hospice tend to go through fewer medical interventions or procedures.
Contrary to the grief-work perspective and psychoanalytic theory. Many people who experience low levels of distress (may not become especially sad when people die) they may do fairly well in adjusting to the death (sometimes demonstrating a clear resilience)
Ways of achieving death
A. Act of Euthanasia: You actively administer some procedure that results in death. (example: you inject a terminally ill patient with an overdose of morphine)
B. Passive Euthanasia: you remove a patient from some equipment that is keeping them alive. (you remove him from a respirator) OR you do not hook him up to a respirator in the first place.
C. Assisted Suicide: Assisting a patient by instructing him or helping him physically to bring about death.
Fathers are more likely to engage in playful interactions, like tickling or bouncing with their kids, than is mom!
Hostile anti-social youngsters who abuse drugs tend to have parents who were low in acceptance. (low in expressing love, and low in control)
The best advice for helping a child adjust to birth of a new sibling is to encourage him to help care for the new baby. Then reward him by doing something the baby can't do yet! (Since you helped me, I have time now to take you out for ice cream! It will be just the two of us, since little lulu is too young to eat ice cream!)
An evolutionary based explanation for sibling rivalry is that there is competition for limited parental resources (time, attention, praise) So, rivalry between siblings is understandable.
If you want your kid to "make it" as an independent adult, you should GRADUALLY give up power and control so that the kid gains experience in making mistakes, and in ultimately making wise choices.
Marital Satisfaction tends to decrease somewhat over the first year of marriage (the happiest times in a marriage in order, are when first married, when both people are retired, when all kids have left home (empty nest), the least happy times are when several teenagers are still living at home!
When a couple is expecting their second baby, the dad will become even more involved in child care, once the new baby arrives!
When interviewed about the impact of parenthood on their lives. Most parents will emphasize the positive contributions that parenthood made to their own personal development.
Hispanic and African American and Asian elders tend to enjoy more supportive relationships with their kids than do European Americans (Caucasians)
In many Asian and Collectivist cultures, the daughter-in-law is typically the first in line to care for an elderly person if there is no daughter.
Most adults who never marry (less than 10% of adults) tend to be happier than singles, who have been divorced.
Gay and Lesbian couples tend to have more egalitarian (equal status) relationships than do married heterosexuals.
After a couple has divorced, the non-custodial dad tends to become more indulgent and permissive, perhaps out of guilt.
The custodial mom tends to become more irritable and impatient! (As the lion's share of child care falls on her)
The impact of remarriage on kids is worsened if both parents bring kids into the new reconstituted families.
The highest potential for child abuse involves a disabled child coupled with a powerless mom! (She's poor, feels trapped, low emotional support from outside)
In terms of the interplay between heredity and environment, the epigenetic model would, for example, describe the transmission of parenting across generations by asserting that harsh treatment in childhood may trigger the expression of a gene for aggressive parenting later in life.
Kids who are victims of physical maltreatment tend to show intellectual impacts! (lower IQ's and behavioral impacts) these include things like aggression towards peers!
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