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Botany-Flowers, Fruits, Bryophytes

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monocotyledons
90,000 species. Includes grasses, lilies, irises, orchids, cattails, and palms
eudicots
200,000 spevies
sterile parts
sepals and petals
fertile parts
stamens and carpels
calyx
sepals fused together
corolla
petals
androecium
many stamens, collectively
pollen grains
developed and disseminated in anthers
carpel
ovule bearing part of the flower, consists of stigma, style, and ovary
gynocium
many carpels
hypogynous
perianth and stamens are situated on the receptacle beneath the ovary, as in lilies
epigynous
Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, as in apple blossoms
receptacle
enlarged tip of a stem that bears the floral parts
peduncle
stalk bearing an inflorescence or solitary flower
perigynous
stamens and petals are adnate to calyx and thus form a short tube (hypanthium) arising from the base of the ovary, as in cherry blossoms
complete flower
contains all 4 strucutres: sepal, petal, stamen, carpel
perfect flower
bisexual, has both stamen and carpel
monoecious
both staminate and carpellate flowers occur on the same plant such as maize and oaks
diocious
staminate and carpellate are found on separate plants, such as willows
regular flower
actinomorphic flower with radial symmetry
irregular flower
zygomorphic flower wit bilateral symmetry
inflorescences
Any arrangement of flowers in a cluster on a stem
fruit
an ovary and its accessory parts that have developed and matured
drupe
fleshy fruit with a single seed enclosed by hard, stony pit, develops from superior ovary containing single ovule
berry
develops from compound ovary, contains more than one seed, thin skin and soft pericarp
pomes
develops from compound inferior ovary in which the flesh comes from the enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows around ovary
dehiscent
split at maturity (follicle, legume, capsule, silique)
follicle
splits along one side or seam (derived from single carpel) milkweed, magnolia
legume
splits along two sides or seams, coral trees, soybeans
silique
splits along two sides or seam, but seeds are borne on central partition exposed when the two halves separate (Brassica rapa)
capsules
consist of at least 2 carpels (indicates compound ovary) and split in a variety of ways, most commong. butterfly iris, bletilla orchid
indehiscent
do not split at maturity (achene, nut, grain, samara, schizocarp)
wind dispersal
small, light weight seeds
animal dispersal
seeds pass through digestive tract
fruits and seeds catch in fur or feathers
oils attract anys
bryophytes
23,000 species including liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. nonvascular plants
Peat Moss
Sphagnum-contains tannic acid
Liverwort
Marchantia
Phylum Hepaticophyta
liverworts
thalli
flattened, lobed gametophyte. 30 cells thick at midrib
protonema
immature gametophyte
gametangia
gamete producing structure
antheridia
male gametangia
archegonia
female gametangia
sporophyte in Marchantia
consists of foot, short seta (stalk) and capsule (sporangia)
sporangia
spore producing structure
elater
elongated structure hat twists around to help release spores
venter
contains egg cell
Phylum Anthocerophyta
hornworts (100 species)
Phylum Bryophtya
mosses, 9,500 species
three types of moss
peat, true, granite
paraphysis
sterile strucutre
Phylum Lycopodiophyta
1200 species, 10-15 genera-club mosses most familiar
Lycopodium
50 species, ground pines, HOMOSPORY
Selaginella
over 750 species
sporophylls
contain sporangia
strobilus
aggregated sporophylls in Lycopodium
Selaginella
spike mosses, adbundant in tropics, HETEROSPORY
microphylls
a small leaf with a single unbranched vein, whorled or in a tight spiral
microsporophylls
bear microsporangia and produce microspores
megasporophylls
bear megasporangia and produce 4 megaspores
Isoetes
quillworts 60 speices
Phylum Pteridophyta
ferns
indusium
thin, protective tissue
sori
patterns of fern sporangia
psilotum
whisk ferns
enations
leaf-like tissues, arranged spirally along stems, outgrowth of epidermis
equisetum
horsetails 25 species