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32 terms

HCA Apologia General Science - Module 16

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Neurons
Nerve cells composed of dendrites and axons.
Synapse
The point at which a signal from one neuron is passed to another neuron.
Neuroglia
Cells that support the neurons and help communicate with one another.
Dendrites
Conduct electrical signals TOWARDS the cell body.
Axons
Conduct electrical signals AWAY from the cell body.
Nerves
Bundles of axons that carry signals to and from the brain.
Central nervous system
(CNS) Composed of the brain and the spinal cord. This is the part of the nervous system that does most of the information processing.
Peripheral nervous system
(PNS) Contains all the neurons involved in receiving information and sending it on to the spinal cord and brain.
Cerebrum
Deals with the "higher-level" brain functions. These would include interpreting signals, learning, reasoning, and memory.
Gray matter
Composed almost exclusively of the cell bodies of neurons.
Corpus callosum
Allows the two hemispheres of the brain to exchange information.
Cerebellum
Has many functions mostly oriented around muscle movements.
Brain stem
It controls the more basic functions of the human body, such as breathing, heart rate, and the pressure at which blood is pumped through the body.
Autonomic nervous system
The system of nerves which carries instructions from the CNS to the body's smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands.
Sensory nervous system
The system of nerves which carries information from the body's receptors to the CNS.
Somatic motor nervous system
The system of nerves which carries instructions from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.
Sympathetic division
Part of the autonomic nervous system that increases the rate and strength of the heartbeat and raises the blood pressure.
Parasympathetic division
Part of the autonomic nervous system that slows the heart rate and lowers the blood pressure.
Papillae
Tiny "bumps" you see on your tongue.
Taste buds
Identify sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami.
Cornea
Where light first passes through in the eye; covered with a thin layer of clear tissue that is kept moist and clean.
Lens
What the eye uses to focus the image.
Retina
The part of the eye on which an image is focused
Ciliary muscle
A smooth muscle that changes the shape of the lens in order to adjust the focus.
Ear drum
A thin sheet of tissue that vibrates as the result of vibrations in the ear.
Ossicles
Tiny bones in the middle ear that move back and forth as a result of the ear drum vibrating.
Cochlea
Snail-like shape that responds to the vibration of the ossicles by transforming it into electrical signal and sending it on to the brain to be interpreted as sound.
Olfactory epithelium
Roof of the nasal cavity
Rods and cones
Cells on the retina that are sensitive to light
Ciliary muscle
Attached to the lens of the eye
Optic nerve
The nerve leading from the eye to the brain
Olfactory sensory cells
Cells with "hair" in the nose that interact with chemicals that dissolve in the mucus