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disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder
this is the use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products
acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Damage to the renal tubules due to presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia; results in oliguria.
Destroys or prohibits the growth of microorganisms. Used to treat bacterial infections. Have not been found to be effective in treating viral infections. To be effective, it must be taken regularly for a specified period of time
Cancerous tumor that arises from the cells lining the bladder; major symptom is hematuria.
Also called the glomerular capsule, Part of the renal corpuscle, a double-walled cup-like structure encircles the glomerulus
A stone formed within an organ by an accumulation of mineral salts. Found in the kidney, renal plural is calculi.
A duct that connects the renal papilla to the renal pelvis. Urine flows from the collecting tubule through the calyx and into the renal pelvis
A flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. In the cardiovascular system used to place dye into blood vessels so they may be visualized on x-rays. In the urinary system used to drain urine from the bladder
Insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye
clean catch urine specimen (CC)
Urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a sample in midstream (halfway through the urination process) to minimize contamination from the genitalia
Test of kidney function. Creatinine is a waste product cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys. For this test, urine is collected for 24 hours and the amount of creatinine in the urine is compared to the amount of creatinine that remains in the bloodstream
Hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina. This may cause urinary frequency and urgency
Process of instilling a contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on X-ray
Accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to the chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus
Increases the excretion of urine, which promotes the loss of water and salt from the body. Can assist in lowering blood pressure; therefore, these drugs are used to treat hypertension. Potassium in the body may by depleted with continued use of diuretics. Potassium-rich foods such as bananas, kiwi, and orange juice can help correct this deficiency
Painful or difficult urination. This is a symptom in many disorders, such as cystitis, urethritis, enlarged prostate in the male, and prolapsed uterus in the female
Chemical compound that separates into charged particles, or ionizes, in a solution. Sodium chloride (NaCl)and potassium (K) are examples of electrolytes.
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should have been established. This usually occurs by the age of five. Also called bedwetting at night
Injection of dye into the bloodstream followed by taking an X-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Use of ultrasound waves to break up stones. Process does not require surgery.
A greater than normal occurrence in the urge to urinate, without an increase in the total daily volume of urine. Frequency is an indication of inflammation of the bladder or urethra.
Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs
Also called Bowman's capsule. Part of the renal corpuscle. It is a double-walled cup-like structure that encircles the glomerulus. In the filtration stage of urine production, waste products filtered from the blood enter Bowman's capsule as the glomerular filtrate
The product of the filtration stage of urine production. Water, electrolytes, nutrients, wastes, and toxins that are filtered from blood passing through the glomerulus. The filtrate enters Bowman's capsule.
Inflammation of the kidney (primarily of the glomerulus). Since the glomerular membrane is inflamed, it becomes more permeable and will allow protein and blood cells to enter the filtrate. Results in protein in the urine (proteinuria) and hematuria
Ball of capillaries encased by Bowman's capsule. In the filtration stage of urine production, wastes filtered from the blood leave the glomerulus capillaries and enter Bowman's capsule.
Use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products. Use of this technique in patients who have defective kidneys is lifesaving.
A decrease in the force of the urine stream, often with difficulty initiating the flow. It is often a symptom of a blockage along the urethra, such as an enlarged prostate gland.
Center of the concave side of the kidney which is an important landmark on the kidney. It is the site where the renal artery enters, the renal vein leaves, the ureter leaves, and nerves enter and leave the kidney.
Steady state or state of balance within the body. The kidneys assist in maintaining this regulatory, steady state.
Distention of the pelvis due to urine collecting in the kidney resulting from an obstruction
Disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder. Most commonly seen in middle-aged women
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
Injecting a contrast medium into a vein and then taking an X-ray to visualize the renal pelvis
located in the lumbar region of the back behind the parietal peritoneum, under muscles of the back above waist, have a concave or depressed area like a bean shape
kidneys, ureters, bladder
X-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye; also called a flat-plate abdomen
Destroying or crushing kidney stones in the bladder or urethra with a device called a lithotriptor.
The functional or working unit of the kidney that filters the blood and produces the urine. There are more than 1 million nephrons in an adult kidney. Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle and the renal tubules.
nephrotic syndrome (NS)
Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in the urine, proteinuria, and the corresponding decrease in protein in the bloodstream
Loss of nervous control that leads to retention; may be caused by spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis
Waste products that contain nitrogen. These products, such as ammonia and urea, are produced during protein metabolism.
Removal of toxic waste substances from the body by placing warm chemically balanced solutions into the peritoneal cavity. Used in treating renal failure and certain poisonings.
Formation of multiple cysts within the kidney tissue; results in the destruction of normal kidney tissue and uremia.
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney. One of the most common types of kidney disease. It may be the result of a lower urinary tract infection that moved up to the kidney by way of the ureters. There may be large quantities of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine, and blood (hematuria) may even be present in the urine in this condition. Can occur with any untreated or persistent case of cystitis
Second phase of urine production, substances needed by the body are----- as the filtrate passes through the kidney tubules
Artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and carries blood to the nephrons of the kidney.
Pain caused by a kidney stone, which can be an excruciating and generally requires medical treatment
Part of a nephron, double-walled cup-like structure called the glomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule and contains a capillary network called the glomerulus. An afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerulus and an efferent arteriole carries blood away from the glomerulus. The filtration stage of urine production occurs in the renal corpuscle as wastes are filtered from the blood in the glomerulus and enter Bowman's capsule.
Inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood resulting in uremia; may be acute or chronic; major reason for a patient being placed on dialysis.
Large collecting site for urine within the kidney. Collects urine from each calyx. Urine leaves the renal pelvis via the ureter.
Network to tubes found in a nephron. It consists of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal tubule, and the collecting tubule. The reabsorption and secretion stages of urine production occur within the renal tubule. As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubule, most of the water and some of the dissolved substances, such as amino acids and electrolytes, are reabsorbed. At the same time, substances that are too large to filter into Bowman's capsule, such as urea, are secreted directly from the blood stream into the renal tubule. The filtrate that reaches the collecting tubule becomes urine.
A diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.
A diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.
Pertaining to behind the peritoneum. Used to describe the position of the kidneys, which is outside of the peritoneal sac alongside the spine.
The prominent folds in the mucosa of the stomach. They smooth out and almost disappear allowing the stomach to expand when it is full of food.
Third phase of urine production; additional waste products are added to the filtrate as it passes through the kidney tubules.
Characteristic of urine that indicates the amount of dissolved substances in urine.
The tube that leads from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. In the male it is also used by the reproductive system to release semen.
urinalysis (U/A, UA)
Laboratory test that consists of the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine.
Involuntary release of urine. In some patients and indwelling catheter is inserted into the bladder for continuous urine drainage.
An inability to fully empty the bladder, often indicates a blockage in the urethra.
urinary tract infection (UTI)
Infection, usually from bacteria such as E. coli, of any organ of the urinary system; most often begins with cystitis and may ascend into the ureters and kidneys; most common in women because of their shorter urethra.
It is the fluid that remains in the urinary system following the three stages of urine production: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
urine culture and sensitivity
Laboratory test of urine for bacterial infection; attempt to grow bacteria on a culture medium in order to identify it and determine which antibiotics it is sensitive to.
A physician specialized in treating conditions and diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system.
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