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179 terms

Medical Terminology

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Micturition, urinating, voiding
terms meaning process of releasing urine from the body
nephrons
place where the filtrscantyation of waste products in the kidney takes place
olig/o
combining form for scanty
consultant dietitians
dietitians who work with individual clients or facilities
sodium, potassium, biocarbonate
electrolytes the kidney regulates
uremia
waste products stay in the urinary system and become toxic and this condition will develop
homeostasis
balance within the body
-stenosis
suffix for narrowing
urinary meatus
urine is discharged outside the body through
peritoneum
membrane lining the abdominal cavity
-ectasia
suffix for dilation
noct/i
combining form for night
vesic/o
combining form for bladder
azot/o
combining form for nitrogenous waste
ureters
transports urine from the kidenys to the bladder
urethrorrhagia
rapid bleeding from the urethra
interstitial cystitis
disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder
escherichia coli
e.coli is the abbreviation for which organism
hematuria
blood in the urine
enuresis
another name for bedwetting
meatotomy
surgical enlargement of the urinary opening
hemodialysis
this is the use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products
diuresis
increased formation and secretion of urine
acute tubular necrosis
damage to the renal tubules due to the presence of toxins int he urine
Blood test to measure kidney function
BUN
kideny, ureters, and bladder
flat-plate abdoment x-ray examines these organs
Wilm's tumor
malignant kidney tumor found most often in children
urgency
feeling the need to urinate immediately
polyuria
too much urine
acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Damage to the renal tubules due to presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia; results in oliguria.
afferent arteriole
Arteriole that carries blood into the glomerulus.
albumin
A protein that is normally found circulating in the bloodstream.
antibiotic
Destroys or prohibits the growth of microorganisms. Used to treat bacterial infections. Have not been found to be effective in treating viral infections. To be effective, it must be taken regularly for a specified period of time
antispasmodic
Medication to prevent or reduce bladder muscle spasms
anuria
Complete suppression of urine formed by the kidneys and a complete lack of urine excretion
azoturia
Nitrogenous waste in the urine.
bacteriuria
Bacteria in the urine.
bladder cancer
Cancerous tumor that arises from the cells lining the bladder; major symptom is hematuria.
bladder neck obstruction
Blockage of the bladder outlet into the urethra.
Bowman's capsule
Also called the glomerular capsule, Part of the renal corpuscle, a double-walled cup-like structure encircles the glomerulus
calculus
A stone formed within an organ by an accumulation of mineral salts. Found in the kidney, renal plural is calculi.
calyx
A duct that connects the renal papilla to the renal pelvis. Urine flows from the collecting tubule through the calyx and into the renal pelvis
catheter
A flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. In the cardiovascular system used to place dye into blood vessels so they may be visualized on x-rays. In the urinary system used to drain urine from the bladder
catheterization
Insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye
clean catch urine specimen (CC)
Urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a sample in midstream (halfway through the urination process) to minimize contamination from the genitalia
collecting tubule
A portion of the renal tubule
cortex
outer layer of an organ
creatinine clearance
Test of kidney function. Creatinine is a waste product cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys. For this test, urine is collected for 24 hours and the amount of creatinine in the urine is compared to the amount of creatinine that remains in the bloodstream
cystalgia
Bladder pain
cystectomy
Excision of the bladder
cystic
Pertaining to the bladder
cystocele
Hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina. This may cause urinary frequency and urgency
cystogram
Record of the bladder
cystography
Process of instilling a contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on X-ray
cystolith
Bladder stone
cystopexy
Surgical fixation of the bladder
cystoplasty
Surgical repair of the bladder
cystorrhagia
Rapid bleeding from the bladder
cystoscope
Instrument used to visually examine the bladder
cystoscopy
Visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cystoscope
cystostomy
Creation of an opening through the body wall and into the bladder
cystotomy
Incision into the bladder
diabetic nephropathy
Accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to the chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus
distal convoluted tubule
A portion of the renal tubule
diuresis
Abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine
diuretic
Increases the excretion of urine, which promotes the loss of water and salt from the body. Can assist in lowering blood pressure; therefore, these drugs are used to treat hypertension. Potassium in the body may by depleted with continued use of diuretics. Potassium-rich foods such as bananas, kiwi, and orange juice can help correct this deficiency
dysuria
Painful or difficult urination. This is a symptom in many disorders, such as cystitis, urethritis, enlarged prostate in the male, and prolapsed uterus in the female
efferent arteriole
Arteriole that carries blood away from the glomerulus
electrolyte
Chemical compound that separates into charged particles, or ionizes, in a solution. Sodium chloride (NaCl)and potassium (K) are examples of electrolytes.
enuresis
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should have been established. This usually occurs by the age of five. Also called bedwetting at night
excretory urography
Injection of dye into the bloodstream followed by taking an X-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye
external sphincter
Ring of voluntary muscle that controls the emptying of urine from the bladder.
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Use of ultrasound waves to break up stones. Process does not require surgery.
filtration
First stage of urine production during which waste products are filtered from the blood.
frequency
A greater than normal occurrence in the urge to urinate, without an increase in the total daily volume of urine. Frequency is an indication of inflammation of the bladder or urethra.
genitourinary system
Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs
glomerular capsule
Also called Bowman's capsule. Part of the renal corpuscle. It is a double-walled cup-like structure that encircles the glomerulus. In the filtration stage of urine production, waste products filtered from the blood enter Bowman's capsule as the glomerular filtrate
glomerular filtrate
The product of the filtration stage of urine production. Water, electrolytes, nutrients, wastes, and toxins that are filtered from blood passing through the glomerulus. The filtrate enters Bowman's capsule.
glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of the kidney (primarily of the glomerulus). Since the glomerular membrane is inflamed, it becomes more permeable and will allow protein and blood cells to enter the filtrate. Results in protein in the urine (proteinuria) and hematuria
glomerulus
Ball of capillaries encased by Bowman's capsule. In the filtration stage of urine production, wastes filtered from the blood leave the glomerulus capillaries and enter Bowman's capsule.
glycosuria
Presence of an excess of sugar in the urine
hematuria
Condition of blood in the urine
hemodialysis (HD)
Use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products. Use of this technique in patients who have defective kidneys is lifesaving.
hesitancy
A decrease in the force of the urine stream, often with difficulty initiating the flow. It is often a symptom of a blockage along the urethra, such as an enlarged prostate gland.
hilum
Center of the concave side of the kidney which is an important landmark on the kidney. It is the site where the renal artery enters, the renal vein leaves, the ureter leaves, and nerves enter and leave the kidney.
homeostasis
Steady state or state of balance within the body. The kidneys assist in maintaining this regulatory, steady state.
hydronephrosis
Distention of the pelvis due to urine collecting in the kidney resulting from an obstruction
internal sphincter
Ring of involuntary muscle that keeps urine within the bladder.
interstitial cystitis
Disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder. Most commonly seen in middle-aged women
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
Injecting a contrast medium into a vein and then taking an X-ray to visualize the renal pelvis
ketonuria
Ketones in the urine
kidney
located in the lumbar region of the back behind the parietal peritoneum, under muscles of the back above waist, have a concave or depressed area like a bean shape
kidneys, ureters, bladder
X-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye; also called a flat-plate abdomen
lithotomy
Surgical incision to remove kidney stones
lithotripsy
Destroying or crushing kidney stones in the bladder or urethra with a device called a lithotriptor.
loop of Henle
A portion of the renal tubule.
meatotomy
Surgical enlargement of the urinary opening (meatus).
medulla
The central area of an organ
micturition
Another term for urination
nephrectomy
Excision of a kidney
nephritis
Inflammation of the kidney
nephrogram
X-ray of the kidney
nephrolith
Kidney stone
nephrolithiasis
The presence of calculi in the kidney
nephrolithotomy
Incision into the kidney to remove a stone.
nephrologist
Specialist in the treatment of kidney disorders.
nephrology
Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the urinary system
nephroma
Kidney tumor
nephromalacia
Softening of the kidney
nephromegaly
Enlarged kidney
nephron
The functional or working unit of the kidney that filters the blood and produces the urine. There are more than 1 million nephrons in an adult kidney. Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle and the renal tubules.
nephropathy
Kidney disease
nephropexy
Surgical fixation of a kidney
nephroptosis
Drooping kidney
nephrosclerosis
Hardening of the kidney
nephrosis
Abnormal condition (degeneration) of the kidney
nephrostomy
Create a new opening across the body wall into the kidney
nephrotic syndrome (NS)
Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in the urine, proteinuria, and the corresponding decrease in protein in the bloodstream
nephrotomy
Incision into a kidney
neurogenic bladder
Loss of nervous control that leads to retention; may be caused by spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis
nitrogenous waste
Waste products that contain nitrogen. These products, such as ammonia and urea, are produced during protein metabolism.
nocturia
Excessive urination during the night. May or may not be abnormal
oliguria
scanty amount of urine
peritoneal dialysis
Removal of toxic waste substances from the body by placing warm chemically balanced solutions into the peritoneal cavity. Used in treating renal failure and certain poisonings.
peritubular capillaries
Capillary bed surrounding the renal tubules
polycystic kidneys
Formation of multiple cysts within the kidney tissue; results in the destruction of normal kidney tissue and uremia.
polyuria
excessive urine production, can be a symptom of diabetes
proteinuria
Protein in the urine.
proximal convoluted tubule
A portion of the renal tubule
pyelitis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis.
pyelogram
X-ray record of the renal pelvis after injection of a radiopaque dye.
pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney. One of the most common types of kidney disease. It may be the result of a lower urinary tract infection that moved up to the kidney by way of the ureters. There may be large quantities of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine, and blood (hematuria) may even be present in the urine in this condition. Can occur with any untreated or persistent case of cystitis
pyeloplasty
Surgical repair of the renal pelvis
pyuria
Presence of pus in the urine
reabsorption
Second phase of urine production, substances needed by the body are----- as the filtrate passes through the kidney tubules
renal artery
Artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and carries blood to the nephrons of the kidney.
renal cell carcinoma
Cancerous tumor that arises from kidney tubule cells
renal colic
Pain caused by a kidney stone, which can be an excruciating and generally requires medical treatment
renal corpuscle
Part of a nephron, double-walled cup-like structure called the glomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule and contains a capillary network called the glomerulus. An afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerulus and an efferent arteriole carries blood away from the glomerulus. The filtration stage of urine production occurs in the renal corpuscle as wastes are filtered from the blood in the glomerulus and enter Bowman's capsule.
renal failure
Inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood resulting in uremia; may be acute or chronic; major reason for a patient being placed on dialysis.
renal papilla
Tip of a renal pyramid.
renal pelvis
Large collecting site for urine within the kidney. Collects urine from each calyx. Urine leaves the renal pelvis via the ureter.
renal pyramids
Triangular-shaped region of the renal medulla.
renal transplant
Surgical replacement of a donor kidney.
renal tubule
Network to tubes found in a nephron. It consists of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal tubule, and the collecting tubule. The reabsorption and secretion stages of urine production occur within the renal tubule. As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubule, most of the water and some of the dissolved substances, such as amino acids and electrolytes, are reabsorbed. At the same time, substances that are too large to filter into Bowman's capsule, such as urea, are secreted directly from the blood stream into the renal tubule. The filtrate that reaches the collecting tubule becomes urine.
renal vein
Vein that carries blood away from the kidneys.
retrograde pyelogram
A diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.
retrograde pyelogram
A diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.
retroperitoneal
Pertaining to behind the peritoneum. Used to describe the position of the kidneys, which is outside of the peritoneal sac alongside the spine.
rugae
The prominent folds in the mucosa of the stomach. They smooth out and almost disappear allowing the stomach to expand when it is full of food.
secretion
Third phase of urine production; additional waste products are added to the filtrate as it passes through the kidney tubules.
specific gravity
Characteristic of urine that indicates the amount of dissolved substances in urine.
stricture
Narrowing of a passageway in the urinary system.
uremia
excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood.
ureterectasis
Dilation of the ureter.
ureterolith
A calculus in the ureter.
ureterostenosis
Narrowing of the ureter.
ureters
Organs in the urinary system that transport urine from the kidney to the bladder.
urethra
The tube that leads from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. In the male it is also used by the reproductive system to release semen.
urethral
Pertaining to the urethra
urethralgia
Urethral pain.
urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra.
urethrorrhagia
Rapid bleeding from the urethra.
urethroscope
Instrument to view inside the urethra.
urethrostenosis
Narrowing of the urethra.
urgency
Feeling the need to urinate immediately.
urinalysis (U/A, UA)
Laboratory test that consists of the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine.
urinary
Pertaining to urine.
urinary bladder
Organ in the urinary system that stores urine.
urinary incontinence
Involuntary release of urine. In some patients and indwelling catheter is inserted into the bladder for continuous urine drainage.
urinary meatus
external opening of the urethra
urinary retention
An inability to fully empty the bladder, often indicates a blockage in the urethra.
urinary tract infection (UTI)
Infection, usually from bacteria such as E. coli, of any organ of the urinary system; most often begins with cystitis and may ascend into the ureters and kidneys; most common in women because of their shorter urethra.
urination
The release of urine from the urinary bladder
urine
It is the fluid that remains in the urinary system following the three stages of urine production: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
urine culture and sensitivity
Laboratory test of urine for bacterial infection; attempt to grow bacteria on a culture medium in order to identify it and determine which antibiotics it is sensitive to.
urinometer
Instrument to measure urine.
urologist
A physician specialized in treating conditions and diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system.
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
X-ray taken to visualize the urethra while the patient is voiding after a contrast dye has been placed in the bladder.