26 terms

AP Psych Ch 10 - Intelligence

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Intelligence
The overall capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment
Factor analysis
Statistical procedure designed to discover the independent elements (factors) in any set of data
Standardization
Process of developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test and for establishing norms
Norms
The scores and corresponding percentile ranks of a large and representative sample of individuals from the population for which a test was designed
Representative sample
A sample of individuals who match the population with whom they are being compared with regard to key variables such as socioeconomic status and age
Normal curve
A bell-shaped graphic representation of data showing what percentage of the population falls under each part of the curve
Raw score
A test score that has not been transformed or converted in any way
Standard score
A score that expresses an individual's position relative to the mean, based on the standard deviation
Percentile score
A score indicating what percentage of the test population would obtain a lower score
Deviation IQ
A standard IQ test score whose mean and standard deviation remain constant for all ages
Reliability
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
Validity
Ability of a test to measure what it is supposed to measure and to predict what it is supposed to predict
Halo effect
The tendency for one characteristic of an individual to influence a tester's evaluation of other characteristics
Experimental design
A design in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationship
Self-fulfilling prophecy
The creation of a situation that unintentionally allows personal expectancies to influence participants
Heritability
The genetically determined proportion of a trait's variation among individuals in a population
Mainstreaming
Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services
Metal retardation
Below-average intellectual functioning, as measured on an IQ test, accompanied by substantial limitations in functioning that originate before age 8
Stanford-Binet intelligence tests
constructed by Lewis Terman, originally used ratio IQ (MA/CA x 100); now based on deviation from mean
Wechsler intelligence tests
three age individual IQ tests: WPPSI (children), WISC (children), WAIS (adults)
fluid intelligence
cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning that tends to diminish with age
crystallized intelligence
learned knowledge and skills such as vocabulary, which tends to increase with age
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
triarchic theory of intelligence
Robert Sternberg's theory that describes intelligence as having analytic, creative and practical dimensions
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
achievement test
test designed to determine a person's level of knowledge in a given subject area
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