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Emotion-focused coping is aimed at controlling the emotional response to the stressful situation. People can regulate their emotional responses through behavioral and cognitive approaches. behavioral approaches include using alcohol or drugs, seeking emotional social support from friends or relatives, and engaging in activities, such as sports or watching TV, which distract attention from the problem. Cognitive approaches involve how people think about the stressful situation. In one cognitive approach, people redefine the situation to put a good face on it, such as by noting that things could be worse, making comparisons with individuals who are less well off, or seeing something good growing out of the problem. Other emotion-focused cognitive processes include strategies Freud called "defense mechanisms," which involve distorting memory or reality in some way. Defense mechanisms include things like Denial and avoidance strategies. People tend to use emotion-focused approaches when they believe they can do little to change the stressful conditions.

Problem-focused coping is aimed at reducing the demands of a stressful situation or expanding the resources to deal with it. Everyday life provides many examples of problem-focused coping, including quitting a stressful job, negotiating an extension for paying some bills, devising a new schedule for studying (and sticking to it), choosing a different career to pursue, seeking medical or psychological treatment, and learning new skills. People tend to use problem-focused approaches when they believe their resources or the demands of the situation are changeable. Both the husbands and the wives used more problem-focused than emotion-focused methods to cope with the stressful event, but the wives reported using more emotion-focused approaches than the husbands did. People with higher incomes and educational levels reported greater use of problem focused coping than those with lower incomes and educational levels. Last, individuals used much less problem-focused coping when the stress involved a death in the family than when it involved other kinds of problems, such as illness or economic difficulties.
Systematic desensitization, a useful method for reducing fear and anxiety. This method is based on the view that fears are learned by classical conditioning—that is, by associating a situation or object with an unpleasant event. Biofeedback is a technique in which an electromechanical device monitors the status of a person's physiological processes, such as heart rate or muscle tension, and immediately reports that information back to the individual. One way people can learn to control their feelings of tension is called progressive muscle relaxation (or just progressive relaxation), in which they focus their attention on specific muscle groups while alternately tightening and relaxing these muscles.

Systematic Desensitization starts with using relaxation techniques. (the focus of Progressive muscle relaxation is relaxing the muscles to reduce stress by removing tension). Then the steps in a hierarchy are presented individually, while the person is relaxed and comfortable. Stimulus hierarchy—a graded sequence of approximations to the conditioned stimulus, the feared situation. The purpose of these approximations is to bring the person gradually in contact with the source of fear in about 10 or 15 steps. The steps follow a sequence from the least to the most fearful for the individual. Each step may elicit some wariness or fear behavior, but the person is encouraged to relax. Once the wariness at one step has passed and the person is calm, the next step in the hierarchy can be introduced. Completing an entire stimulus hierarchy and reducing a fairly strong fear can be done in a few hours, divided into several separate sessions. Biofeedback is more so focused on the biological responses to the stressor. They pair it with progressive muscle relaxation to ease some sort of physical manifestation of stress like headache. It is not interested in reconditioning of the stressor which is the primary focus of systematic desensitization.
The process of preventing illness and injury can be thought of as operating as a system, in which the individual, his or her family, health professionals, and the community play a role. This plays into Von Bertalanffy reading in that he believed that every human is a individual system of their psychological and biological processes. All of these processes interact amongst themselves and with the environment. Each of our human systems are a part of other systems (i.e our family, schools, work). Also that our human system is open and interacts freely with our environment as we develop and receive feedback. All of our human lives have context and there for we cannot be a closed system. On our individual system scale, there are four factors that are important for the well-being of the individual person : First, adopting wellness lifestyles may require individuals to change longstanding behaviors that have become habitual and may involve addictions, as in cigarette smoking. Habitual and addictive behaviors are very difficult to modify. Second, people need to have certain cognitive resources, such as the knowledge and skills, to know what health behaviors to adopt, to make plans for changing existing behavior, and to overcome obstacles to change, such as having little time or no place to exercise. Third, individuals need sufficient self-efficacy regarding their ability to carry out the change. Without self-efficacy, their motivation to change will be impaired. Last, being sick or taking certain drugs can affect people's moods and energy levels, which may affect their cognitive resources and motivation. Another system influence is Many social factors influence people's likelihood to adopt health-related behaviors. For instance, one partner's exercising or eating unhealthfully before marriage can lead his or her partner to adopt the same behavior over time. People are more likely to adopt healthful behaviors if these behaviors are promoted or encouraged by community organizations, such as governmental agencies and the health care system. Each of these things interact to influence the collective health.
1. Reinforcement. When we do something that brings a pleasant, wanted, or satisfying consequence, the tendency to repeat that behavior is increased or reinforced. A child who receives something she wants, such as a nickel, for brushing her teeth at bedtime is more likely to brush again the following night. The nickel in this example is a positive reinforcer because it was added to the situation (the word "positive" refers to the arithmetic term for addition). But reinforcement can also occur in another way. Suppose you have a headache, you take aspirin, and the headache goes away. In this case, your headache was unpleasant and your behavior of taking aspirin removed it from the situation. The headache is called a "negative" reinforcer because it was taken away (subtracted) from the situation. In both cases of reinforcement, the end result is a desirable state of affairs from the person's point of view.
2. Extinction. If the consequences that maintain a behavior are eliminated, the response tendency gradually weakens. The process or procedure of extinction exists only if no alternative maintaining stimuli (reinforcers) for the behavior have supplemented or taken the place of the original consequences. In the above example of toothbrushing behavior, if the money is no longer given, the child may continue brushing if another reinforce exists, such as praise from her parents or her own satisfaction with the appearance of her teeth.
3. Punishment. When we do something that brings an unwanted consequence, the behavior tends to be suppressed. A child who gets a scolding from his parents for playing with matches is less likely to repeat that behavior, especially if his parents might see him. The influence of punishment on future behavior depends on whether the person expects the behavior will lead to punishment again. Take, for example, people who injure themselves (punishment) jogging—those who think they could be injured again are less likely to resume jogging than those who do not.
Theory of planned behavior- an expanded version of the theory of reasoned action people decide their intention in advance of most voluntary behaviors, and intentions are the best predictors of what people will do.
The theory indicates that three judgments determine a person's intention to perform a behavior, which we'll illustrate with a girl named Ellie who has decided to start exercising:
1. Attitude regarding the behavior, which is basically a judgment of whether or not the behavior is a good thing to do. Ellie has decided that exercising "would be a good thing for me to do." This judgment is based on two expectations: the likely outcome of the behavior (such as, "If I exercise, I will be healthier and more attractive") and whether the outcome would be rewarding (for example, "Being healthy and good looking will be satisfying and pleasant").
2. Subjective norm. This judgment reflects the impact of social pressure or influence on the behavior's acceptability or appropriateness. Ellie has decided that exercising "is a socially appropriate thing for me to do." This decision is based on her beliefs aboutothers' opinions of the behavior (such as, "My family and friends think I should exercise") and her motivation to comply with those opinions (as in, "I want to do what they want").
3. Perceived behavioral control, or the person's expectation of success in performing the contemplated behavior (which is very similar to the concept of self-efficacy). Ellie thinks she can do the exercises and stick to the program.
•People are much more likely to have unsafe sex if they are promiscuous or have sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs In men, intoxication seems to increase negative attitudes and decrease self-efficacy about using condoms and to increase the willingness to have unsafe sex when they are sexually aroused . Women are less likely to request condom use when they've been drinking
•Young adults are much more likely to engage in risky sex if their parents reject them for their sexual orientation or abused/neglected them in childhood
•Lesbian, gay, and bisexual teens are more likely to abuse alcohol and engage in risky sex if they live in a community that is religiously intolerant rather than accepting of their sexual orientation
•Unmarried partners are less likely to use condoms if they perceive their relationship to be close or serious
•Decision-making in sexual situations is often subject to non-rational processes, such as denial or wishful thinking . Sexual arousal and having an attractive partner decrease rationality in sexual decisions.
•Many individuals have maladaptive beliefs about their own low self-efficacy to use condoms and the effect that doing so would have on sexual pleasure and spontaneity.
•Many people, especially young women, are embarrassed to buy condoms and make errors putting them on a penis, for example not leaving a space at the tip and squeezing air out
•The advent of medical treatments that lower viral load and prolong life has led to over-optimism in many individuals, leading them to think that protection is not as necessary anymore.