Systems Analysis -> Conceptual Design -> Physical Design -> Implementation and Conversion -> Operation and Maintenance -> Back to start
Data Modeling Occurs in the first two steps, Data Model is used in the next three steps
Systems Analysis: Consists of initial planning to determine the need for and feasibility of developing a new system. This stage includes preliminary judgments about the proposal's technological and economic feasibility. It also involves identifying user information needs, defining the scope of the proposed new system, and using information about the expected number of users and transaction volumes to make preliminary decisions about hardware and software requirements
Conceptual Design: Includes developing the different schemas for the new system at the conceptual, external, and internal levels
Physical Design: Consists of translating the internal-level schema into the actual database structures that will be implemented in the new system. This is also the stage when new applications are developed.
Implementation and Conversion: includes all the activities associated with transferring data from existing systems to the new database AIS, testing the new stem, and training employees how to use it.
Operation and Maintenance: Using and maintaining the new system. This includes carefully monitoring system performance and user satisfaction to determine the need for making system enhancements and modifications.
Eventually, changes in business strategies and practices or significant new developments in information technology prompt the company to begin investigating the feasibility of developing a new system, and the entire process starts again (note the arrow returning to the systems analysis, first step)