42 terms

Miller Ch 21 Solid and Hazardous Wastes

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Love canal
A neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, which became the subject of national and international attention, controversy, and eventual environmental notoriety following the discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste buried beneath the neighborhood.
municipal solid waste (MSW)
Waste produced by households and businesses
solid waste
Non-liquid, non-soluable materials ranging from municipal garbage to sewage sludge; agricultural refuse; and mining residues.
hazardous waste
Any material that can be harmful to human health or the environment if it is not properly disposed of
waste management
The managment of garbage through a variety of methods including reduction, recycling, composting, incineration, landfilling, etc.
waste prevention
also known as waste prevention) any change in the design, manufacturing, purchase, or use of materials or.' products (including packaging) to reduce the amount or toxicity before they become municipal solid waste. Prevention also refers to the reuse of products or materials. (different then you think)
industrial ecology
A holistic approach to industry that integrates principles from engineering, chemistry, ecology, economics, and other disciplines and seeks to redesign industrial systems in order to reduce resource inputs and minimize inefficiency.
resource exchange webs
having industries interact with one another and be situated near each other so wastes of one manufacturer can become raw materials for another
material flow economy
buying goods outright
service flow economy
Services are rented out that such goods provide, uses minimum amount of material
chauffagistes
provide warmth services by contracting to keep a client's space within a specific temperature during certain hours at a designated cost
primary recycling
materials are recycled into new products of the same type
closed loop recycling
when materials, such as plastic or aluminum, are used to rebuild the same product. An example of this is the use of the aluminum from aluminum cans to produce more aluminum cans.
downcycling
recycling into products of lesser quality in an effort to prevent the waste of useful materials and benefit the environment
secondary recycling
materials are re-used to form new products that are usually lower quality
PET
type of plastic
materials recovery facilities (MRFs)
recyclables are usually sent here, where they are either hand-sorted or separated using a variety of technologies, such as magnets, screens and conveyor belts. They are then prepared for re-manufacturing here, as well.
source separation
The separation of recyclable materials from trash at home, in school, or by businesses.
postconsumer waste
material generated by households or by commercial, industrial and institutional facilities that can no longer be used for its intended purpose. This includes returns of materials from the distribution chain. (Source: ISO 14021). Examples include construction and demolition debris, materials collected through recycling programs, broken pallets (from a pallet refurbishing company, not a pallet-making company), discarded cabinetry and decking, and home maintenance waste (leaves, grass clippings, tree trimmings).
preconsumer waste
materials such as scraps and trimmings that are part of the manufacturing process and are used to make new products.
cyclodextrin
type of sugar made from corn starch
phytoremediation
A method employed to clean up a hazardous waste site that uses plants to absorb and accumulate toxic materials
phytomonitoring
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bioremediation
The use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
plasma torch
used to detoxify hazardous wastes by incinerating them at very high temperatures
sanitary landfill
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
deep well disposal
liquids poured through a pipe into dry, porus rock beneath aquifers, the hazardous liquid soaks into the porus rock, and is isolated from the aquifers by the clay/rock layers above
surface impoundments
excavated depressions such as ponds, pits or lagoos into which liners are placed and liquid hazardous wastes are stored
secure hazardous waste landfills
a landfill where containers with liners are buried, carefully designed and monitored
above ground buildings
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Basel Convention on Hazardous Wastes (1989)
requires exporters to get approval from recipient nation before hazardous wastes can be shipped - in 1995, strengthened to ban hazardous wastes from being shipped from developed to developing countries
PVCs
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Emissions Control
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Dioxins
A family of toxic chemical compounds formed when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are heated or burned. Dioxins are also formed as by-products in the process of chlorinating phenols, which are used in producing herbicides.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1984)
Regulates solid and hazardous waste from "cradle to grave"
Superfund Act (1980)
makes owners of hazardous waste sites responsible for clean-up of sites
Brownfields
abandoned polluted industrial sites in central cities, many of which are today being cleaned and redeveloped
environmental injustice
refers to how minorities and the poor are harmed the most by environmental pollution
precautionary principal
When a threat is of serious environmental damage, we should not wait for scientific proof before taking action.
persistent organic pollutants
A group of persistent, toxic chemicals that bioaccumulation in organisms and can travel thousands of kilometers through air and water to contaminate sites far removed from their source
ecolabeling
serves to tell consumers which brands use environmentally benign processes
POPS treaty
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