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Ch. 5.Health Promotion of Preschoolers (3-6 Years).
Terms in this set (25)
> Weight - Preschoolers should gain about 2 to 3 kg (4.4 to 6.6 lb) per year.
> Height - Preschoolers should grow about 6.5 to 9 cm (2.6 to 3.5 in) per year.
> Preschoolers' bodies evolve away from the characteristically unsteady wide stances and protruding
abdomens of toddlers, into a more graceful, posturally erect, and sturdy physicality.
Fine and gross motor skills
■ Preschoolers should show improvement in fine motor skills, which will be displayed by
activities like copying figures on paper and dressing independently.
Gross Motor Skill (3 years old)
> Rides a tricycle
> Jumps off bottom step
> Stands on one foot for a few seconds
Gross Motor Skill (4 years old)
> Skips and hops on one foot
> Throws ball overhead
Gross Motor Skill (5 years old)
› Jumps rope
›Walks backward with heel to toe
›Throws and catches a ball with ease
Piaget - The pre-conceptual phase transitions to the phase of intuitive thought around the age of 4 years. The phase of intuitive thought lasts until the age of 7 years.
■ The preschooler moves from totally egocentric thoughts to social awareness and the ability to understand the viewpoints of others.
Preschoolers make judgments based on visual appearances. Variations in thinking during this age
☐ Magical thinking - Thoughts can cause events to occur.
☐ Animism - Inanimate objects are alive.
☐ Centration - Focus on one aspect instead of considering the whole.
Preschoolers begin to understand the sequence of daily events. By the end of the preschool years, children have a better comprehension of time-oriented words.
■ The vocabulary of preschoolers increases to more than 2,100 words by the end of the fifth year.
■ Preschoolers speak in sentences of three to four words at the ages of 3 and 4 years, and four to
five words at the age of 4 to 5 years.
■ This age group enjoys talking, and language becomes their primary method of communication.
Erikson - initiative vs. guilt
■ Preschoolers become energetic learners, despite not having all of the physical abilities necessary to be successful at everything.
■ Guilt may occur when preschoolers believe they have misbehaved or when they are unable to accomplish a task.
■ Guiding preschoolers to attempt activities within their capabilities while setting limits
■ Early preschoolers continue in the good-bad orientation of the toddler years, and actions are
taken based on whether or not it will result in a reward or punishment.
■ Older preschoolers primarily take actions based on satisfying personal needs, yet are beginning
to understand the concepts of justice and fairness.
■ Preschooler feels good about themselves with regard to mastering skills that allow independence (dressing, feeding). During stress, insecurity, or illness, preschoolers may regress to previous immature behaviors or develop habits (nose picking, bed-wetting, thumb sucking).
■ Preschoolers begin to recognize differences in appearances, and identify what is considered acceptable and unacceptable.
■ By the age of 5 years, preschoolers begin comparing themselves with peers.
■ Poor understanding of anatomy makes intrusive experiences, such as injections or cuts, frightening to preschoolers.
■Preschoolers generally do not exhibit stranger anxiety and have less separation anxiety.
■ Prolonged separation, such as during hospitalization, can provoke anxiety.
☐ Favorite toys and appropriate play should be used to help ease preschoolers' fears.
■ Pretend play is healthy and allows preschoolers to determine the difference between reality and fantasy.
Parallel play shifts to associative play during the preschool years. Play is not highly organized, but cooperation does exist between children. Appropriate activities include:
■ Playing ball
■ Putting puzzles together
■ Riding tricycles
■ Playing pretend and dress-up activities
■ Role playing
■ Simple sewing
■ Reading books
■ Wading pools
■ Computer programs
■ Electronic games
Health Promotion (Immunizations) --- for
healthy preschoolers 3 to 6 years of age.
■ 4 to 6 years - diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTaP); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); varicella; and inactivated poliovirus (IPV)
■ 3 to 6 years - yearly seasonal influenza vaccine; trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV); or live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) by nasal spray.
- Preschoolers consume about half the amount of energy that adults do (1,800 kcal).
- Picky eating may remain a behavior in preschoolers, but often by 5 years of age they become more willing to sample different foods.
- Preschoolers need 13 to 19 g/day of protein in addition to adequate calcium, iron, folate, and vitamins A and C.
- Saturated fats should be less than 10% of preschoolers' total caloric intake, and total fat over several days should be 20% to 30% of total caloric intake.
Sleep and Rest
- On average, preschoolers need about 12 hr of sleep per day. Some still require a daytime nap.
- Sleep disturbances frequently occur during early childhood, and problems range from difficulty
going to bed to sleep terrors. Appropriate interventions vary, but may include the following:
■ Keep a consistent bedtime routine.
■ Use a night-light.
■ Reassure preschoolers who are frightened, but avoid allowing preschoolers to sleep with their parents.
- Eruption of primary teeth is finalized by the beginning of the preschool years.
- Parents need to assist and supervise brushing and flossing to ensure performed appropriately and prevent dental caries.
- Trauma to teeth is common in preschool-age children and should be immediately assessed by a dentist.
Injury Prevention - (Bodily Harm)
■ Firearms should be kept in locked cabinets or containers.
■ Preschoolers should be taught stranger safety.
■ Preschoolers should be taught to wear protective equipment (helmet, pads).
■ Thermostats should be turned down on hot water heaters.
■ Working smoke detectors should be kept in the home.
■ Preschoolers should have sunscreen applied when outside.
■ Preschoolers should not be left unattended in bathtubs.
■ Preschoolers should be closely supervised when near the pool or any other body of water.
■ Preschoolers should be taught to swim.
■ Preschoolers should use a federally approved car restraint according to the
■ When the forward-facing car seat is outgrown, the preschooler transitions to a booster seat.
■ It is recommended that children use an approved car restraint system until they achieve a
height of 145 cm (4 feet, 9 in).
■ Safest area for children is the backseat of the car.
■ Supervise preschool-age children when playing outside, and do not allow them to play near a
curb or parked cars.
Teach pedestrian safety rules to preschool-age children.
☐ Stand back from curb while waiting to cross the street.
☐ Before crossing the street look left, then right, then left again.
☐ Walk on the left, facing traffic, when there are no sidewalks.
☐ At night, wear light-colored clothing with fluorescent materials attached.
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